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2July-Maths Website - an online resource for teachers and students of mathematics
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To get started with this blank [[TiddlyWiki]], you'll need to modify the following tiddlers:
* [[SiteTitle]] & [[SiteSubtitle]]: The title and subtitle of the site, as shown above (after saving, they will also appear in the browser title bar)
* [[MainMenu]]: The menu (usually on the left)
* [[DefaultTiddlers]]: Contains the names of the tiddlers that you want to appear when the TiddlyWiki is opened
You'll also need to enter your username for signing your edits: <<option txtUserName>>
These [[InterfaceOptions]] for customising [[TiddlyWiki]] are saved in your browser

Your username for signing your edits. Write it as a [[WikiWord]] (eg [[JoeBloggs]])

<<option txtUserName>>
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<<option chkAutoSave>> [[AutoSave]]
<<option chkRegExpSearch>> [[RegExpSearch]]
<<option chkCaseSensitiveSearch>> [[CaseSensitiveSearch]]
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----
Also see [[AdvancedOptions]]
<<importTiddlers>>
'Maths for boys' stereotype develops early
IANS, Mar 15, 2011, 05.25pm IST

Gender stereotypes regarding maths may develop as early as the second grade, says a new study.

Children applied the stereotype to themselves: boys identified themselves with the subject, whereas girls did not.

The "maths is for boys" stereotype has been used as part of the explanation for why so few women pursue science, maths and engineering careers.

The cultural stereotype may nudge girls to think that "maths is not for me", which can affect what activities they engage in and their career aspirations, the journal Child Development reports.

The study suggests that for girls, lack of interest in maths may come from culturally-communicated messages about maths being more appropriate for boys than for girls, the researchers said, according to a University of Washington statement.

But the stereotype that girls don't do math was odd to lead author Dario Cvencek, born and raised in the former Yugoslavia.

"We didn't have that stereotype where I grew up," said Cvencek, post-doctoral fellow at the University of Washington Institute for Learning & Brain Sciences. "People there thought that math went with girls just as much as it did with boys."

"Our results show that cultural stereotypes about math are absorbed strikingly early in development," said co-author Andrew Meltzoff, psychology professor and Cvencek's counterpart.

Source: [['Maths for boys' stereotype develops early - Times Of India|http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2011-03-15/parenting/28691228_1_maths-stereotype-boys]]
Dingle Granby Toxteth Education Action Zone

[[Translated letters for schools|http://www.primaryresources.co.uk/letters/]]

A large collection of typical school letters translated into a wide range of languages. 
Download pdf or word versions.
[[Maths-Quarter|www.maths-quarter.com]] is an exciting new tool in learning and teaching 'AS' level Mathematics in the UK. 
There are interactive equations where you are taken through each stage of the mathematical method.
The government says there will be 10,000 more university places in England this autumn, mainly in maths, science, technology and engineering.

The extra places will be allocated by the higher education funding council in consultation with universities. They will be part-funded: universities will get students' tuition fees but not grants for teaching and other support. 

Click below to read full details

Source: [[BBC NEWS : Education : 10,000 extra university places|http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/education/8158885.stm]]
New site - [[LessonCorner|http://www.lessoncorner.com/]]

New website with a whole range of customisable [[maths worksheets|http://www.lessoncorner.com/worksheets]] suitable for Key Stage 3 and 4.
[[Formulator Tarsia|http://www.mmlsoft.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=9&Itemid=10]] - create jigsaw and domino puzzles with this free software that includes an equation editor. 
I'm updating the site after a few weeks. 

The site has been taking ages to load up and already is quite a large file to load up. I got a little carried away with some plugins, so I've reduced things down a little to see if this helps. The Calendar plug in was nice but was the biggest problems at the moment so its gone for now. I'm thinking of splitting the site over several Tiddlywiki pages, but this takes time and its not going to happen soon. 
An international team of mathematicians has detailed a vast complex numerical "structure" which was described more than a century ago.

Mapping the 248-dimensional structure, called E8, took four years of work and produced more data than the Human Genome Project, researchers said.

E8 is a "Lie group", a means of describing symmetrical objects.

The team said their findings may assist fields of physics which use more than four dimensions, such as string theory.

Lie groups were invented by the 19th Century Norwegian mathematician Sophus Lie (pronounced "Lee").

Familar structures such as balls and cones have symmetry in three dimensions, and there are Lie groups to describe them. E8 is much bigger.

"What's attractive about studying E8 is that it's as complicated as symmetry can get", observed David Vogan from the Massachussetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in the US.

"Mathematics can almost always offer another example that's harder than the one you're looking at now, but for Lie groups, E8 is the hardest one." 

Source: [[BBC NEWS : Science/Nature : 248-dimension maths puzzle solved|http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/6466129.stm]]
[[LiveMaths|www.livemaths.co.uk]] is a great little site containing a whole host of video tutorials for GCSE and A level Maths. There is a subscription to pay to use the service, but the cost is very reasonable. We've been using this for a year now and have just paid the subscription for all our A level students for the next academic year. 
If you want a simple but very useful Anti Plagiarism software, try [[WCopyfind 2.6|http://www.plagiarism.phys.virginia.edu/]] :

"This program examines a collection of document files. It extracts the text portions of those documents and looks through them for matching words in phrases of a specified minimum length. When it finds two files that share enough words in those phrases, ~WCopyfind generates html report files. These reports contain the document text with the matching phrases underlined."

Written by Lou Bloomfield, 
Professor of Physics, 
University of Virginia.

Once downloaded the program runs without needing to be installed.
Students wishing to take A level mathematics need to know that there are several topics that will be __required knowledge__ before the course 
starts. You need to make sure you revise these areas before the course starts as there will not be much time in lessons to go through these once the course begins. However, there will always be additional support for all students when the need arises.
!Assumed Knowledge
Follow the following links to [[GCSE Bitesize Maths|http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/maths/]] for extra help and practice. 
!!!Shape and Space
Choose a topic for additional help 
<html>
<form name="shape" method="get">
<select name="menum3" size=1>
<option value=http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/maths/shapes/locirev1.shtml selected>Loci</option> 
<option value=http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/maths/shapes/trigonometryrev1.shtml>Trigonometry 1</option> 
<option value=http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/maths/shapes/furthertrigonometryhirev1.shtml>Further Trigonometry</option> 
<option value=http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/maths/shapes/circles2hirev1.shtml>Circle properties</option> 
<option value=http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/maths/shapes/congruencysimilarityrev1.shtml>Congruency and similarity</option> <option value=http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/maths/shapes/3dshapeshirev1.shtml>3D problems</option> &lt;\SELECT&gt;</select> <input onclick="location=document.shape.menum3.options[document.shape.menum3.selectedIndex].value;" type="button" value="GO"> 
</html>
!!!Handling Data
Choose a topic for additional help 
<html>
<form name="data" method="get">
<select name="menum4" size=1>
<option value=http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/maths/data/representingdata3hirev1.shtml selected>Statistical diagrams</option> <option value=http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/maths/data/scatterdiagramsrev1.shtml>Scatter Diagrams</option> 
<option value=http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/maths/data/probabilityhirev1.shtml>Probability 2</option> &lt;\SELECT&gt;</select> <input onclick="location=document.data.menum4.options[document.data.menum4.selectedIndex].value;" type="button" value="GO"> 
</html>
!!!Number
Choose a topic for additional help 
<html>
<form name="number" method="get">
<select name="menum1" size=1>
<option value=http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/maths/number/fractions2hirev1.shtml selected>Fractions 1</option> 
<option value=http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/maths/number/surdsrev1.shtml>Surds</option> &lt;\SELECT&gt;</select> 
><input onclick="location=document.number.menum1.options[document.number.menum1.selectedIndex].value;" type="button" value="GO"> 
</html>
!!!Algebra
Choose a topic for additional help 
<html>
<form name="algebra" method="get">
<select name="menum2" size=1>
<option value=http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/maths/algebra/factorisinghirev1.shtml selected>Factorising quadratics</option> 
<option value=http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/maths/algebra/inequalitiesrev1.shtml>Solving inequalities</option> 
<option value=http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/maths/algebra/quadequationshirev1.shtml>Solving qadratic equations</option> 
<option value=http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/maths/algebra/simultaneoushirev1.shtml>Simultaneous Equations</option> &lt;\SELECT&gt;</select> <input onclick="location=document.algebra.menum2.options[document.algebra.menum2.selectedIndex].value;" type="button" value="GO">
</html> 
!!!Induction Practice Papers
Below are downloadable versions of a practice paper that you can complete before September
[[Induction Practice Paper|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/word/inductionpractice.doc]] (MS Word)
[[Induction Practice Paper - Answers|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/word/inductionpracans.doc]] (MS Word)
[[Induction Practice Papers|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/word/inductionzip.exe]] (self extracting zipped version of questions + answers)
!!Advanced Level (A Level)

!!!What are A Levels?

A levels are studied typically between the ages of 16-18 in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.  They remain the most popular route into UK higher education institutions.

!!!How many subjects can be take?

To gain entry to most UK university students need 3 or 4 good A Level grades, some exceptionally talented students can take 5 subjects.

!!!What subjects are studied?

There is a broad range of A levels for you to choose from, including Business, Science, Arts and Humanities subjects. Typical combinations include:

>Science, Medicine and Engineering: Maths, Further Maths, Physics, Chemistry and Biology . 
>Business, Humanities and Law: Maths, Economics, Accountancy, Business Studies, English Literature and Psychology .

!!!What do A Levels consist of?

Each A Level consists of 6 units which are studied in two stages:

Advanced Subsidiary (AS) level: Students study 3 modules and upon completion are awarded an AS Level.

A2 level: After successful completion of the AS year, students can study the second set of 3 units which completes a full A Level.

Having completed the A2 Level, any AS Level grade is transferred to one A Level grade. Some students decide not to continue a subject to A2 Level, in which case they can keep their AS Level grade. This can still be used as part of an application to university.

All A levels modules are awarded an UMS score (uniform module score). This is a standardised score based on the raw marks achieved for the assessment or exam taken. These are usually out of 100 with E = 40 UMS to A = 80 UMS approximately.

''Update'' : 
>Most A levels are changing for 2009/10, with A level Maths changing for 2013. The main change is the reduction to six modules for an A level, 2 for AS level and 2 for A2 level. 

>The other change is the introduction of A* at A2 level. A* will be awarded for an average of UMS = 90 in two A2 modules, while achieving and overall average of UMS = 80 for all modules. (ie students need to achieve and A grade overall, yet also achieve A* in two second year modules).

!!!What do A level grades mean?

For each A Level subject a grade from A–E is awarded. The entrance requirements for the university courses are based on a point system administered by [[UCAS|http://www.ucas.ac.uk]] and will be expressed as either:

Grades: AAB, BCC or CCC = A UCAS Tariff score: 360, 300 or 280 for example.

To translate predicted A Level and AS Level grades into ''UCAS'' tariff points :

>A Levels
>>@@A* = 140@@
>>A  = 120 
>>B  = 100 
>>C  = 80 
>>D  = 60 
>>E  = 40

>AS Levels
>>A = 60 
>>B = 50 
>>C = 40 
>>D = 30 
>>E = 20

''Update'' : In 2010, there will also be an A* grade awarded for the final A2 award. To achieve an A*, a student will have had to gain an average UMS score of 80 plus gain a UMS of 90 or more in their A2 modules. 

!!!What else will be gained from taking A Levels?

In addition to academic study, the aim of A Level study is to develop important competences:

>*Independent thinking,
>*study skills,
>*team working,
>*research and analysis.  
!Induction Course
If you are about hoping to start an A level Maths course, check your prerequisite knowledge with a simple [[Induction Course|A level Induction]]

<<tabs tabClass
Guide "" [[tabinstructions]]
General_Maths "" [[General A level links]]
Core_Maths "" [[Core Maths links]]
Mechanics "" [[Mechanics links]]
Statistics "" [[Statistics links]]
Decision/Discrete_Maths "" [[Discrete Maths links]]
>>
Check my DownloadGuide for additional help and support using these resources.

<<tabs tabClass
Web_Pages "" [[A_Level_Web_Pages]]
Excel "" [[A_Level_Excel]]
Powerpoint "" [[A_Level_Powerpoint]]
Word "" [[A_Level_Word]]
>>
By Graeme Paton, Education Editor (The Telegraph)

Further maths was named as the fastest growing A-level subject in the country this year as entries soared by 11.5 per cent in just 12 months. Economics, maths, technology and the three sciences – biology, chemistry and physics – were also named among the 10 biggest year-on-year subject rises, it was disclosed. The growth is believed to be driven by the economic downturn as sixth-formers increasingly focus on courses more likely to lead to a decent job. It also reflects demand among university admissions tutors for students to stretch themselves by taking the most difficult sixth-form subjects. Some institutions have already drawn up subject “black-lists”, meaning students taking more than one A-level in areas such as media studies, dance and sports studies could be automatically barred.

According to today’s figures from the Joint Council for Qualifications, critical thinking entries fell quicker than any other A-level subject. Big falls were also recorded in sport, PE studies and communication studies. Figures for England, Wales and Northern Ireland show that economics was the second fastest growing subject, with entries jumping by nine per cent to 22,875. The number of students taking A-levels in maths increased by 6.2 per cent to 77,001, making it the second most popular subject overall, after English. A-levels in biology, chemistry and physics all increased this year, despite previous warnings over a huge shortage of qualified scientists. Overall entries in the three subjects combined were up by almost 4.3 per cent to 132,881.

Source: [[A-level results: maths and science 'more popular in the recession' - Telegraph|http://www.telegraph.co.uk/education/educationnews/7953869/A-level-results-maths-and-science-more-popular-in-the-recession.html]]
|!Title|!Type|!Description|!Level|!Link|!Added|!Extra Notes|h
|Biorhythms |Interactive Excel Worksheet|a simple program that calculates the biorhythms of a person given their date of birth and a starting date to investigate. An interesting use of the sine curve|A level |[[Biorhythms|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/excel/biorhythms.xls]]|13/08/05||
|Circles |Interactive Excel Worksheet |Explore the cartesian equation of a circle |A level |[[Circles|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/excel/circles.xls]]|13/08/05||
|Completing the square |Interactive Excel Worksheet |Randomised questions testing completing the square. Also includes a demonstration of how completing the square can help sketch quadratics|A level|[[Competing the square|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/excel/completing the square.xls]]|03/10/09|//updated to correct errors displaying negative coordinates//|
|Correlation 1 |Interactive Excel Worksheet |A puzzle where you have to guess the type of correlation |A level|[[Correlation 1|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/excel/correlation.xls]]|13/02/05||
|Functions |Interactive Excel Worksheet |Explore simple graphical function transformations |A level |[[Functions|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/excel/functions.xls]]|13/02/05||
|Logarithms |Interactive Excel Worksheet |A nice worksheet exploring exponential graphs and functions submitted by Thanasis L Kontogiannis |A level |[[Logs|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/excel/logs.xls]]|13/02/05 |Email [[Thanasis L Kontogiannis|mailto:thankont@yahoo.com]]|
|Logarithms and Exponentials |Interactive Excel Worksheet |An extension to the Logarithms worksheet exploring the graphs of logarithmic and exponential functions submitted by Thanasis L Kontogiannis |A level|[[Logs and Exponentials|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/excel/logsexp.xls]]|13/02/05|Email [[Thanasis L Kontogiannis|mailto:thankont@yahoo.com]]|
|Normal Distribution |Interactive Excel Worksheet |An interactive demonstration for the use of the Normal Distribution in Statistics|A level|[[Normal Distribution|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/excel/normdist.xls]]|13/02/05||
|Pascal's Triangle|Interactive Excel Worksheet |An extended and improved worksheet exploring the uses of Pascal's Triangle submitted by Thanasis L Kontogiannis|A level|[[Pascal|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/excel/pascal.xls]]|13/02/05|Email [[Thanasis L Kontogiannis|mailto:thankont@yahoo.com]]|
|Pascal's Triangle - version 2|Interactive Excel Worksheet|A simple but effective worksheet producing Pascal's Triangle submitted by Thanasis L Kontogiannis|A level|[[Pascal 2|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/excel/pascal2.xls]]|13/02/05 |Email [[Thanasis L Kontogiannis|mailto:thankont@yahoo.com]]|
|Probability Simulations |Interactive Excel Worksheet |This worksheet includes several simulations to help demonstate the ideas behind probability. Demonstratins include ; one die, two dice, three coins and use of Venn Diagrams. |A level|[[Probability Simulation|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/excel/probsimulate.xls]]|13/08/05||
|Quadratics|Interactive Excel Worksheet|Quadratics Factorise and expand quadratics|Key Stage 3, GCSE and A level level|[[Quadratics|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/excel/quadratic.xls]]|13/02/05||
|Trigonometry|Interactive Excel Worksheet|Explore the trigonometric graphs of sine and cosine functions|GCSE and A level|[[Trigonometry|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/excel/trigonometry.xls]]|29/04/10|see also related Excel sheet - Trigonometry v2|
|Trigonometry v2|Interactive Excel Worksheet|Explore the trigonometric graphs of sine, cosine and tangent functions|GCSE and A level|[[Trigonometry|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/excel/trigonometryv2.xls]]|29/04/10||
|Differentiation|Interactive Excel Worksheet|Explore the relationship between a curve and its gradient function|AS Level|[[Differentiation|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/excel/differentiation.xls]]|26/12/06||
|Partial Fractions|Interactive Excel Worksheet|Explore and practice Partial Fractions for Core Mathematics 4|GCSE and A level|[[Algebra|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/excel/C4_Partial_Fractions.xls]]|29/04/10||
|Binomial Series|Interactive Excel Worksheet|Explore and practice Binomial Series expansion and approximations fro Core Mathematics 4.|GCSE and A level|[[Trigonometry|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/excel/C4_Binomial_Series.xls]]|28/04/10||
|!Title|!Type|!Description|!Level|!Link|!Added|!Extra Notes|h
|Balancing Act|Powerpoint|This Powerpoint presentation consists of three Balancing Act problems. These involve placing missing objects (birds on a perch or acrobat on a trapeze). The problems are timed adding a competitive element to the problem.|A level|[[Balancing Act|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/powerpoint/balancing.ppt]]|27/08/10|Basic use of moments is involved but students don't need to know this to be able to participate.|
|Topology |Powerpoint lesson|An excellent Powerpoint presentation submitted by Peter Shaw |A level |[[Introduction to Topology|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/powerpoint/topology.ppt]]|13/02/05|Email [[Peter Shaw|mailto:petrshaw@yahoo.co.uk]]|
|Trigonometry Introduction|Powerpoint lesson|Powerpoint lesson on Core 2 trigonometry|A level|[[Trigonometry|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/powerpoint/trigonometry.ppt]]|26/12/05|Written using Powerpoint 2002, uses motion paths and so may not work on earlier versions|
|Trigonometry - Compound angles geometric proof|Powerpoint lesson|Geometric Proof for sin(A+B) for Core 3 trigonometry|A level|[[Trigonometry|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/powerpoint/compound_angle_geometric_proof.ppt]]|26/03/10|Written using Powerpoint 2003|
|Trigonometry - Geometric description of Trigonometic functions|Powerpoint lesson|Geometric description of all the Trigonometric fuctions using ratios of lengths on an unit circle for Core 3|A level|[[Trigonometry|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/powerpoint/a2_trig_functions.ppt]]|06/04/10|Written using Powerpoint 2003|
|Completing the square|Powerpoint lesson |A geometric demonstation of completing the square |A level |[[Completing the square|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/powerpoint/completesq.ppt]]|26/12/05|Written using Powerpoint 2002, uses motion paths and so may not work on earlier versions|
|Mathematicians |Powerpoint lesson|A quick introduction to a selection of mathematicians |A level|[[Mathematicians|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/powerpoint/mathematicians.ppt]]|13/02/05||
|!Title|!Type|!Description|!Level|!Link|!Added|!Extra Notes|h
|AS Mathematics Induction Course|HTML Page |A simple online induction course, includes links to topic that are prerequisites for AS level for students to practice, as well as a quick induction course test with answers for students to download.|A level|[[A level Induction]]|13/02/05||
|Discrete Maths|HTML Page|A simple online summary for AS Discrete (or Decision) Mathematics courses. Includes links to a variety of interactive resources to help demonstrate the common algorithms required for this course.|A level|[[Discrete Maths]]|13/02/05||
|!Title|!Type|!Description|!Level|!Link|!Added|!Extra Notes|h
|Module Checklist for Core Mathematics 1 (Edexcel exam board)|Word|A quick and simple checklist of the topics needed for the Core 1 module |A level|[[Checklist C1|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/word/checklist%20c1.doc]]|13/02/05||
|Module Checklist for Core Mathematics 2 (Edexcel exam board)|Word|A quick and simple checklist of the topics needed for the Core 2 module |A level|[[Checklist C2|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/word/checklist%20c2.doc]]|13/02/05||
|Module Checklist for Core 3 (Edexcel exam board)|Word|A quick and simple checklist of the topics needed for the Core 3 module|A level |[[Checklist C3|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/word/checklist%20c3.doc]]|13/02/05||
|Module Checklist for Core 4 (Edexcel exam board)|Word|A quick and simple checklist of the topics needed for the Core 4 module|A level |[[Checklist C4|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/word/checklist%20c4.doc]]|13/02/05||
|Module Checklist for Statistics 1 (Edexcel exam board)|Word|A quick and simple checklist of the topics needed for the Statistics 1 module|A level|[[Checklist S1|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/word/checklist%20s1.doc]]|13/02/05||
|Module Checklist for Statistics 2 (Edexcel exam board)|Word|A quick and simple checklist of the topics needed for the Statistics 2 module|A level|[[Checklist S2|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/word/checklist%20s2.doc]]|13/02/05||
!BBC NEWS | Education | Academics denounce maths A-level

Dozens of university academics have put their names to calls for a new maths A-level in England to be scrapped. Educators for Reform, a think tank offshoot, say "use of mathematics" is not of A-level standard. They argue it will mislead students from poor backgrounds and will not prepare people for university study.

The Qualifications and Curriculum Authority said a consultation on the new course was just ending but it was meant to supplement existing A-levels. The new qualification is intended to be taught from September 2011. The academics - at least 62 of them as of Thursday afternoon - say that in particular the compulsory algebra and calculus units are "considerably less demanding and cover less content than A-level".

!!Dilution

The maths professors and lecturers are basing their opinions on the AS-level in use of mathematics and pilot papers for the A2, the second part of an A-level. They say curriculum time is taken up with practical activities rather than developing advanced mathematical understanding.

Another plank of their objections, being presented in response to a QCA consultation, is that there is already a shortage of specialist maths teachers in secondary schools. These will be spread even more thinly if they are having to teach another course as well as A-level mathematics, they say. And they argue fewer students might take the main maths A-level if use of mathematics presents an easier option.

Most universities will continue to demand A-level mathematics for those wishing to study physics, economics, chemistry, computer science and engineering, according to their report. "Students attending schools - usually in the poorest areas - that do not have a detailed knowledge of university admission policies will be unaware of this," it says. "Some university admissions tutors have already had to turn away bright students whose teachers (wrongly) believed that a Grade A in AS-level use of mathematics was appropriate preparation for subjects requiring a high degree of mathematical literacy."

Professor Nick Shepherd-Barron at Cambridge University said: "As far as A-level is concerned creativity has been not just hidden, but lost. "Instead mathematics is presented as a mindless exercise in the execution of routines."

!!'Skills for progression'

For the A2 exam, students must take a compulsory paper in calculus, and choose two other papers. These include options such as data analysis, decision mathematics, dynamics, hypothesis testing, mathematical comprehension and mathematical principles for personal finance. Educators for Reform say there are already free-standing qualifications suitable for those who do not need a full-blown maths A-level. They say GCSE-level study should be made more rigorous - and A-level less dull.

A QCA spokesman said A-level use of mathematics was intended to be an addition to AS and A-levels, not a replacement. "It is designed to be accessible to a wide range of students and to improve the mathematical knowledge and skills needed for progression to employment and higher education (but not for mathematics or mathematics-related degrees)," he said. "It will help develop a workforce with appropriate skills to meet the needs of business and industry."

He added it was too early to comment on the final specifications of the new qualifications, as the public consultation on the draft criteria ended on 10 July and a full analysis of the responses would then be carried out. "Once proposals are approved, awarding bodies will develop new specifications for accreditation by [regulator] Ofqual." 

Source: [[BBC NEWS : Education : Academics denounce maths A-level|http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/education/8143060.stm]]
By Alison Smith
BBC News education reporter

At first sight, this year's A-level results appear to have produced what the government wanted, with another rise in the pass rate to 97.5%, and more A grades awarded than ever before.

Ministers' priority subjects - maths, sciences and economics - are attracting more students, and more bright ones at that. Their main problem is accusations they failed to fund enough university places for thousands of hard-working students. There are about half as many degree places available through clearing after unprecedented demand. And of course the perennial debate about whether exams are getting easier. But the results show other changes apart from the bare grades.

Fifty percent of all entries from pupils at independent schools received an A grade this year - a rise of 2.1 percentage points on last year. This is a larger rise than in any other sector of schools. The high proportion of As awarded to private school pupils compares to just under 40% at other selective schools and 20% at comprehensives.

It appears the independent sector is strengthening its grip on the top grades. Independent schools traditionally enter higher numbers of children for subjects thought of as the most academic. This year, private schools accounted for just over 20% of A-level maths entries, even though the sector only educates about 8% of the population. 

Source: [[BBC NEWS : Education : Achievements mask school divide|http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/education/8211955.stm]]
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A historical drama set in Roman Egypt starring Rachel Weisz as philosopher Hypatia, killed by a Christian mob while protecting the great Library of Alexandria in 391 AD.

Directed by Alejandro Amenábar.

Reviews : 
[[Telegraph|http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/film/filmreviews/7620761/Agora-review.html]]
Tim Robey 22/04/10

>"Rachel Weisz, fetching in Egyptian shawls, stars as the philosopher Hypatia, who appears to have cracked the problem of gravity but not yet how the planets and sun interrelate. The director, Alejandro Amenábar, clearly has a crashing great beef with Christian fundamentalism and the threat to scientific learning. Meanwhile, the ridiculously handsome Max Minghella moons around as a lovestruck slave, vying with snooty-pants student Oscar Isaac for Hypatia’s affections."

[[The Guardian|http://www.guardian.co.uk/film/2010/apr/22/agora-review]]
Peter Bradshaw 22/10/10

>"If sword'n'sandal movies from the toga-wearing classical world generally make you giggle or groan – or even if they don't – then this could be the film for you. Alejandro Amenábar has made an ambitious, cerebral and complex movie set in fourth-century Alexandria, the era in which the famous library was destroyed. Rachel Weisz gives an outstanding performance as the mathematician and philosopher Hypatia." 

Trailer :
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Part 1

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Part 2

<html><object width="425" height="344"><param name="movie" value="http://www.youtube.com/v/axqT323GHVc&hl=en_GB&fs=1&"></param><param name="allowFullScreen" value="true"></param><param name="allowscriptaccess" value="always"></param><embed src="http://www.youtube.com/v/axqT323GHVc&hl=en_GB&fs=1&" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" allowscriptaccess="always" allowfullscreen="true" width="425" height="344"></embed></object></html>

Part 3

<html><object width="425" height="344"><param name="movie" value="http://www.youtube.com/v/xm3Tnq63soU&hl=en_GB&fs=1&"></param><param name="allowFullScreen" value="true"></param><param name="allowscriptaccess" value="always"></param><embed src="http://www.youtube.com/v/xm3Tnq63soU&hl=en_GB&fs=1&" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" allowscriptaccess="always" allowfullscreen="true" width="425" height="344"></embed></object></html>

Part 4

<html><object width="425" height="344"><param name="movie" value="http://www.youtube.com/v/vvN4JzCORv0&hl=en_GB&fs=1&"></param><param name="allowFullScreen" value="true"></param><param name="allowscriptaccess" value="always"></param><embed src="http://www.youtube.com/v/vvN4JzCORv0&hl=en_GB&fs=1&" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" allowscriptaccess="always" allowfullscreen="true" width="425" height="344"></embed></object></html>

Part 5

<html><object width="425" height="344"><param name="movie" value="http://www.youtube.com/v/4OLTV77TZbA&hl=en_GB&fs=1&"></param><param name="allowFullScreen" value="true"></param><param name="allowscriptaccess" value="always"></param><embed src="http://www.youtube.com/v/4OLTV77TZbA&hl=en_GB&fs=1&" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" allowscriptaccess="always" allowfullscreen="true" width="425" height="344"></embed></object></html>

Part 6

<html><object width="425" height="344"><param name="movie" value="http://www.youtube.com/v/cRBgfjOhPhY&hl=en_GB&fs=1&"></param><param name="allowFullScreen" value="true"></param><param name="allowscriptaccess" value="always"></param><embed src="http://www.youtube.com/v/cRBgfjOhPhY&hl=en_GB&fs=1&" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" allowscriptaccess="always" allowfullscreen="true" width="425" height="344"></embed></object></html>
[[Algbra Flash!|http://www.hellam.net/algebra/index.html]] 
[[Algebra.help|http://www.algebrahelp.com/]] 
[[Create Custom Algebra and Pre-Algebra Worksheets|http://www.kutasoftware.com/index.html]] 
[[Free Algebra 1 Worksheets|http://www.kutasoftware.com/free.html]] 
[[Geometric algebra 2d problems 1|http://www.fi.uu.nl/toepassingen/00217/toepassing_wisweb.en.html]] 
[[KS4-5 Maths Catch Up-Home|http://www.teachnet-uk.org.uk/2006%20Projects/Maths-KS4-5_catch-up/home.htm]] 
[[Mathematical Methods (CAS) - Exams and Exam Assessment Reports|http://www.vcaa.vic.edu.au/vce/studies/mathematics/cas/casexams.html]]
[[MyAlgebra|http://www.myalgebra.com/]] 
[[Slope|http://www.fi.uu.nl/toepassingen/00166/toepassing_wisweb.en.html]] 
[[Solving equations with balance-strategy|http://www.fi.uu.nl/toepassingen/02017/toepassing_wisweb.en.html]]  
!Simple Ideas of Algorithms
Animated sorting algorithms includes : - 
*Bubble Sort
*Shuttle Sort (called insertion sort in these sites)
*Shell Sort
*Quick Sort
<html>
<form name="sort" method="get">
<select name="menud1" onchange="location=document.sort.menud1.options[document.sort.menud1.selectedIndex].value;" value="GO">
<option selected>choose a topic</option>
<option value="http://cs.smith.edu/~thiebaut/java/sort/demo.html">sorting algorithm animations site 1</option>
<option value="http://www.cs.ubc.ca/spider/harrison/Java/sorting-demo.html">
sorting algorithm animations site 2</option></select>
</form>
</html>
!Word notes
//Here are some notes on Algorithms//

[[D1 Algorithms|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/word/Decision%20Maths%201%20algorithms.doc]]
!Powerpoint presentations
//These have been written using MS Office 2007 but saved as Office 97-2003 presentations, hopefully all formatting will be ok, but these have not been fully tested on different systems yet.//

[[Bubble sort|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/powerpoint/d1 bubble sort demo.ppt]]
[[Quick sort|http://www.2july-mathsco.uk/powerpoint/d1 quick sort demo.ppt]]
[[Shuttle sort|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/powerpoint/d1 shuttle sort demo.ppt]]
[[Bin Packing|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/powerpoint/d1 bin packing demo.ppt]]
The humble ant, when it is part of a colony, becomes a highly intelligent maths boffin according to researchers at the University of Sydney.

Scientists have discovered that ants are capable of solving complex mathematical problems, and are even able to manage what only a small number of computer algorithms are equipped to do by actually adapting to an optimal solution once discovered to fit an evolving problem.

The findings of an international team of scientist, published in the Journal of Experimental Biology, are believed to deepen human understanding of how even relatively simple animals can overcome difficult and dynamic problems in nature, and assist computer scientists in the development of better software that can solve logistical problems and even help maximise efficiency in existing industries.

Source: [[Ant's mathematics abilities assist algorithms - Dec not spotted : TechEye|http://www.techeye.net/software/ants-mathematics-abilities-assist-algorithms]]
//Posted by Zack Whittaker @ 7:48 am//

Alan Turing can rightly be called the founding father of computing. Born in 1912, he studied mathematics and logic, and was not only one of the most advanced computer scientists of his age, but of the entire generation.

During the Second World War, he solved the Enigma code - the code used by Nazi Germany to send encrypted messages from one place to another. He worked at Bletchley Park, the foundation of modern day GCHQ, which is the third leg of the British intelligence services, which provides electronic support and signal interception.

As a result of his work, the Allies were able win the war. 

With his knowledge of mathematics and computing, he developed further theories and understanding into artificial intelligence, which then led him to creating the Turing test - a test performed to a computer to gauge whether the computers’ response and that of a humans were indistinguishable.

Turing was, and still is, a national treasure for the United Kingdom. But amongst all his achievements and his extraordinary work — work which helped the Allies win the war — he was gay.

Because of the now-clearly abhorrent laws we had, he was convicted under the gross indecency act of law which punished homosexuality. As a result of this, his national security clearance with GCHQ was revoked and due to the Soviet era already heightening tensions, he was essentially hung out to dry. He could not practice the work he had loved, and was not able to discuss the work he had accomplished.

Two years later, he committed suicide at the tragically premature age of 41.

As a result, the [[Number 10’s E-Petition|http://petitions.number10.gov.uk/turing/]] service has been inundated with signatures for a petition which asks the present Prime Minister to apologise for past the governments mistakes, and to posthumously exonerate him from any convictions.

It is mentioned that an official apology is unlikely due to the fact no known surviving family can be there to receive it. Nevertheless the symbolic nature of these actions would still go towards something rather poignant.

Source: [[Apology solicited for death of computing founding father Turing : iGeneration : ZDNet.com|http://blogs.zdnet.com/igeneration/?p=2678]]
Nasa scientists believe Chile's devastating earthquake may have speeded up the Earth's rotation and shortened the length of a day.

Researcher Richard Gross and his colleagues at Nasa's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in California calculated that Saturday's 8.8-magnitude quake could have cut 1.26 microseconds off the length of a day.

Not that anyone would notice however - as that's one-millionth of a second.

But why does movement in the Earth's crust give the planet an apparent turbo boost?

Brian Baptie, of the British Geological Survey, explains how the Earth's lack of rigidity is what allows changes to the planet's rotation - and the length of a day.

"The earth is not rigid and movements of its constituent parts, including the atmosphere and oceans, occur. These effects introduce a wobble - a movement of the Earth's axis - which is small but detectable," he says.

"A small wobble can be caused as a result of great earthquakes like the recent event in Chile and Indonesia on 26 December 2004, due to the movement of mass close to the earth's surface, but it will only be marginally detectable by the most sensitive instruments and is not a cause for concern."

Using the same mathematical model as it used for Chile, the Nasa team had estimated the 9.1 Sumatran earthquake in 2004 would have shortened a day by 6.8 microseconds.

But, as Nasa and other scientists also point out, the Earth's rotation rate changes all the time as a result of variations in winds and ocean currents, and doesn't have much practical consequence for people because of the tiny amount of time involved. 

Source: [[BBC News - How Chile's quake could have shortened a day|http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/8547955.stm]]
Science and maths exams should be more demanding and more experts should be involved in teaching the subjects, an independent report has said.

The Science and Learning Expert Group says improving science and maths has been a high priority in recent years.

But it calls for more demanding GCSEs and A-levels, regulation of private exam boards and greater use of flexible pay to attract specialist teachers.

The government says many of the issues raised are being addressed.

It set up the expert group as one of five which would provide advice on the UK's Science and Society Strategy.
	
Science and Learning Expert Group chairman Sir Mark Walport said: "Many of us have good cause to be grateful to a single inspiring teacher whom we encountered during our school education.

"Our overarching recommendation is that specialist teachers and their subjects need to come to the fore in the teaching of science and mathematics in schools and colleges."

The report also calls for more maths content in GCSE and A-level science courses - especially in chemistry and physics A-levels.

The authors suggest exams are dictating what is taught in schools and that the exams themselves are seen as "inadequate" in testing the depth of students' knowledge and their understanding of key concepts.

The trend for multiple-choice questions was criticised, with the authors saying there should be "greater emphasis on accurate use of the English language".

The report said assessment should follow the curriculum rather than define it and that expert groups should be set up for each subject area to advise on the curriculum for five to 19-year-olds and on GCSEs and A-levels.

The science and maths community want a greater say in the development of qualifications and assessment, it adds. 

Source: [[BBC News - Science and maths exams 'need shake-up'|http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/education/8535446.stm]]
By Julian Siddle Science reporter.

Scientists at a US university say they have developed a technique to hack into Indian electronic voting machines.

After connecting a home-made device to a machine, University of Michigan researchers were able to change results by sending text messages from a mobile.

Indian election officials say their machines are foolproof, and that it would be very difficult even to get hold of a machine to tamper with it.

India uses about 1.4m electronic voting machines in each general election.

!!'Dishonest totals'

A video posted on the internet by the researchers at the University of Michigan purportedly shows them connecting a home-made electronic device to one of the voting machines used in India.

Professor J Alex Halderman, who led the project, said the device allowed them to change the results on the machine by sending it messages from a mobile phone.

"We made an imitation display board that looks almost exactly like the real display in the machines," he told the BBC. "But underneath some of the components of the board, we hide a microprocessor and a Bluetooth radio."

"Our lookalike display board intercepts the vote totals that the machine is trying to display and replaces them with dishonest totals - basically whatever the bad guy wants to show up at the end of the election." 

Source: [[BBC News - US scientists 'hack' India electronic voting machines|http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/10123478.stm]]
Benoît Mandelbrot, who has died of pancreatic cancer aged 85, enjoyed the rare distinction of having his name applied to a feature of mathematics that has become part of everyday life – the Mandelbrot set. Both a French and an American citizen, though born in Poland, he had a visionary, maverick approach, harnessing computer power to develop a geometry that mirrors the complexity of the natural world, with applications in many practical fields.

At the start of his groundbreaking work, The Fractal Geometry of Nature, he asks: "Why is geometry often described as cold and dry? One reason lies in its inability to describe the shape of a cloud, a mountain, a coastline or a tree." The approach that he pioneered helps us to describe nature as we actually see it, and so expand our way of thinking.

Source: [[Benoît Mandelbrot obituary : Science : The Guardian|http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2010/oct/17/benoit-mandelbrot-obituary]]
!Blackboard tools
//(these can also be very useful with other VLE's or just for your own website)//

[[dokeos The open source e-learning suite |http://www.dokeos.com/]]
[[e-learning gateway - homepage |http://www.elearning.soton.ac.uk/]]
[[Rapid E-learning and Consultancy - Kineo - Virtual Classrooms Guide |http://www.kineo.com/elearning-tips/virtual-classrooms-.html]]
[[Sample Course Site|http://blackboard.duke.edu/]]

[[Blackboard Test Generators |http://www.cod.edu/it/blackboard/testgenerators.htm]]
[[Blackboard Training Guides |http://www.cf.ac.uk/insrv/educationandtraining/elearning/blackboard/bbtraining/index.html]]
[[Blackboard Version 6.0 - Information Technology Services @ Tufts University |http://ase.tufts.edu/its/blackboard/guide.htm]]
[[Blackboard Working in Groups |http://www.utexas.edu/academic/blackboard/examples/groups.html]]
[[BSD Biography Maker |http://www.bham.wednet.edu/bio/biomaker.htm]]

[[Custom Sign Generator |http://www.customsigngenerator.com/]]

[[Online RSS Reader |http://www.ipings.com/act/online_rss_reader]]
[[Build a Feed You Can Cut 'n Paste |http://feed2js.org/index.php?s=build]]
[[Rss Viewer |http://www.feedroll.com/rssviewer/]]
[[RSS-xpress Lite - UKOLN |http://rssxpress.ukoln.ac.uk/lite/include/]]

[[Resource Wrapper |http://www.ph.ed.ac.uk/cgi-bin/interactive/resource_wrapper?applet_url=http://www.sumanasinc.com/webcontent/anisamples/astronomy/blackbodycurves.html]] : If you find some nice flash applets you would like to include into Blackboar, this little tool helps package these applets customised to remove clutter and add your own instructions to your students.

[[Plagiarism Resource Site Home Page |http://www.plagiarism.phys.virginia.edu/home.html]]
<html>
<!--copy and paste--><object width="334" height="326"><param name="movie" value="http://video.ted.com/assets/player/swf/EmbedPlayer.swf"></param><param name="allowFullScreen" value="true" /><param name="wmode" value="transparent"></param><param name="bgColor" value="#ffffff"></param> <param name="flashvars" value="vu=http://video.ted.com/talks/dynamic/GregLynn_2005-medium.flv&su=http://images.ted.com/images/ted/tedindex/embed-posters/GregLynn-2005.embed_thumbnail.jpg&vw=320&vh=240&ap=0&ti=430&introDuration=16500&adDuration=4000&postAdDuration=2000&adKeys=talk=greg_lynn_on_organic_design;year=2005;theme=the_creative_spark;theme=numbers_at_play;event=TED2005;&preAdTag=tconf.ted/embed;tile=1;sz=512x288;" /><embed src="http://video.ted.com/assets/player/swf/EmbedPlayer.swf" pluginspace="http://www.macromedia.com/go/getflashplayer" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" wmode="transparent" bgColor="#ffffff" width="334" height="326" allowFullScreen="true" flashvars="vu=http://video.ted.com/talks/dynamic/GregLynn_2005-medium.flv&su=http://images.ted.com/images/ted/tedindex/embed-posters/GregLynn-2005.embed_thumbnail.jpg&vw=320&vh=240&ap=0&ti=430&introDuration=16500&adDuration=4000&postAdDuration=2000&adKeys=talk=greg_lynn_on_organic_design;year=2005;theme=the_creative_spark;theme=numbers_at_play;event=TED2005;"></embed></object>
</html>
[[Calculus-Help|http://www.calculus-help.com/index.html]] 
[[Derivative Plotter|http://www.flashandmath.com/mathlets/calc/derplot/derplot.html]] 
[[Graphing the Derivative|http://www.ltcconline.net/greenl/java/Other/DerivativeGraph/classes/DerivativeGraph.html]] 
[[MATH1111 Introduction to Calculus Quizzes|http://www.maths.usyd.edu.au/u/UG/JM/MATH1111/Quizzes/]] 
[[Pauls Online Notes Calculus II - Center of Mass|http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/Classes/CalcII/CenterOfMass.aspx]] 
[[Visual Calculus - Drill - Chain Rule|http://archives.math.utk.edu/visual.calculus/2/chain_rule.2/index.html]] 
[[Visual Calculus|http://archives.math.utk.edu/visual.calculus/index.html]] 
/***
|Name|CalendarPlugin|
|Source|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#CalendarPlugin|
|Version|1.5.0|
|Author|Eric Shulman|
|Original Author|SteveRumsby|
|License|unknown|
|~CoreVersion|2.1|
|Type|plugin|
|Requires||
|Overrides||
|Options|##Configuration|
|Description|display monthly and yearly calendars|
NOTE: For //enhanced// date popup display, optionally install [[DatePlugin]] and [[ReminderMacros]]
!!!Usage:
<<<
|{{{<<calendar>>}}}|full-year calendar for the current year|
|{{{<<calendar year>>}}}|full-year calendar for the specified year|
|{{{<<calendar year month>>}}}|one month calendar for the specified month and year|
|{{{<<calendar thismonth>>}}}|one month calendar for the current month|
|{{{<<calendar lastmonth>>}}}|one month calendar for last month|
|{{{<<calendar nextmonth>>}}}|one month calendar for next month|
|{{{<<calendar +n>>}}}<br>{{{<<calendar -n>>}}}|one month calendar for a month +/- 'n' months from now|
<<<
!!!Configuration:
<<<
|''First day of week:''<br>{{{config.options.txtCalFirstDay}}}|<<option txtCalFirstDay>>|(Monday = 0, Sunday = 6)|
|''First day of weekend:''<br>{{{config.options.txtCalStartOfWeekend}}}|<<option txtCalStartOfWeekend>>|(Monday = 0, Sunday = 6)|

<<option chkDisplayWeekNumbers>> Display week numbers //(note: Monday will be used as the start of the week)//
|''Week number display format:''<br>{{{config.options.txtWeekNumberDisplayFormat }}}|<<option txtWeekNumberDisplayFormat >>|
|''Week number link format:''<br>{{{config.options.txtWeekNumberLinkFormat }}}|<<option txtWeekNumberLinkFormat >>|
<<<
!!!Revisions
<<<
2009.04.31 [1.5.0] rewrote onClickCalendarDate() (popup handler) and added config.options.txtCalendarReminderTags.  Partial code reduction/cleanup.  Assigned true version number (1.5.0)
2008.09.10 added '+n' (and '-n') param to permit display of relative months (e.g., '+6' means 'six months from now', '-3' means 'three months ago'.  Based on suggestion from Jean.
2008.06.17 added support for config.macros.calendar.todaybg
2008.02.27 in handler(), DON'T set hard-coded default date format, so that *customized* value (pre-defined in config.macros.calendar.journalDateFmt is used.
2008.02.17 in createCalendarYear(), fix next/previous year calculation (use parseInt() to convert to numeric value).  Also, use journalDateFmt for date linking when NOT using [[DatePlugin]].
2008.02.16 in createCalendarDay(), week numbers now created as TiddlyLinks, allowing quick creation/navigation to 'weekly' journals (based on request from Kashgarinn)
2008.01.08 in createCalendarMonthHeader(), 'month year' heading is now created as TiddlyLink, allowing quick creation/navigation to 'month-at-a-time' journals
2007.11.30 added 'return false' to onclick handlers (prevent IE from opening blank pages)
2006.08.23 added handling for weeknumbers (code supplied by Martin Budden (see 'wn**' comment marks).  Also, incorporated updated by Jeremy Sheeley to add caching for reminders (see [[ReminderMacros]], if installed)
2005.10.30 in config.macros.calendar.handler(), use 'tbody' element for IE compatibility.  Also, fix year calculation for IE's getYear() function (which returns '2005' instead of '105'). Also, in createCalendarDays(), use showDate() function (see [[DatePlugin]], if installed) to render autostyled date with linked popup.  Updated calendar stylesheet definition: use .calendar class-specific selectors, add text centering and margin settings
2006.05.29 added journalDateFmt handling
<<<
!!!Code
***/
//{{{
version.extensions.CalendarPlugin= { major: 1, minor: 5, revision: 0, date: new Date(2009,5,31)};
//}}}
//{{{
if(config.options.txtCalFirstDay == undefined)
	config.options.txtCalFirstDay = 0;
if(config.options.txtCalStartOfWeekend == undefined)
	config.options.txtCalStartOfWeekend = 5;
if(config.options.chkDisplayWeekNumbers == undefined)
	config.options.chkDisplayWeekNumbers = false;
if(config.options.chkDisplayWeekNumbers)
	config.options.txtCalFirstDay = 0;
if(config.options.txtWeekNumberDisplayFormat == undefined)
	config.options.txtWeekNumberDisplayFormat = 'w0WW';
if(config.options.txtWeekNumberLinkFormat == undefined)
	config.options.txtWeekNumberLinkFormat = 'YYYY-w0WW';
if(config.options.txtCalendarReminderTags == undefined)
	config.options.txtCalendarReminderTags = 'reminder';

config.macros.calendar = {
	monthnames:['Jan','Feb','Mar','Apr','May','Jun','Jul','Aug','Sep','Oct','Nov','Dec'],
	daynames:['M','T','W','T','F','S','S'],
	todaybg:'#ccccff',
	weekendbg:'#c0c0c0',
	monthbg:'#e0e0e0',
	holidaybg:'#ffc0c0',
	journalDateFmt:'DD MMM YYYY',
	monthdays:[31,28,31,30,31,30,31,31,30,31,30,31],
	holidays:[ ] // for customization see [[CalendarPluginConfig]]
};
//}}}
//{{{
function calendarIsHoliday(date)
{
	var longHoliday = date.formatString('0DD/0MM/YYYY');
	var shortHoliday = date.formatString('0DD/0MM');
	for(var i = 0; i < config.macros.calendar.holidays.length; i++) {
		if(   config.macros.calendar.holidays[i]==longHoliday
		   || config.macros.calendar.holidays[i]==shortHoliday)
			return true;
	}
	return false;
}
//}}}
//{{{
config.macros.calendar.handler = function(place,macroName,params) {
	var calendar = createTiddlyElement(place, 'table', null, 'calendar', null);
	var tbody = createTiddlyElement(calendar, 'tbody');
	var today = new Date();
	var year = today.getYear();
	if (year<1900) year+=1900;

 	// get journal format from SideBarOptions (ELS 5/29/06 - suggested by MartinBudden)
	var text = store.getTiddlerText('SideBarOptions');
	var re = new RegExp('<<(?:newJournal)([^>]*)>>','mg'); var fm = re.exec(text);
	if (fm && fm[1]!=null) { var pa=fm[1].readMacroParams(); if (pa[0]) this.journalDateFmt = pa[0]; }

	var month=-1;
	if (params[0] == 'thismonth') {
		var month=today.getMonth();
	} else if (params[0] == 'lastmonth') {
		var month = today.getMonth()-1; if (month==-1) { month=11; year--; }
	} else if (params[0] == 'nextmonth') {
		var month = today.getMonth()+1; if (month>11) { month=0; year++; }
	} else if (params[0]&&'+-'.indexOf(params[0].substr(0,1))!=-1) {
		var month = today.getMonth()+parseInt(params[0]);
		if (month>11) { year+=Math.floor(month/12); month%=12; };
		if (month<0)  { year+=Math.floor(month/12); month=12+month%12; }
	} else if (params[0]) {
		year = params[0];
		if(params[1]) month=parseInt(params[1])-1;
		if (month>11) month=11; if (month<0) month=0;
	}

	if (month!=-1) {
		cacheReminders(new Date(year, month, 1, 0, 0), 31);
		createCalendarOneMonth(tbody, year, month);
	} else {
		cacheReminders(new Date(year, 0, 1, 0, 0), 366);
		createCalendarYear(tbody, year);
	}
	window.reminderCacheForCalendar = null;
}
//}}}
//{{{
// cache used to store reminders while the calendar is being rendered
// it will be renulled after the calendar is fully rendered.
window.reminderCacheForCalendar = null;
//}}}
//{{{
function cacheReminders(date, leadtime)
{
	if (window.findTiddlersWithReminders == null) return;
	window.reminderCacheForCalendar = {};
	var leadtimeHash = [];
	leadtimeHash [0] = 0;
	leadtimeHash [1] = leadtime;
	var t = findTiddlersWithReminders(date, leadtimeHash, null, 1);
	for(var i = 0; i < t.length; i++) {
		//just tag it in the cache, so that when we're drawing days, we can bold this one.
		window.reminderCacheForCalendar[t[i]['matchedDate']] = 'reminder:' + t[i]['params']['title']; 
	}
}
//}}}
//{{{
function createCalendarOneMonth(calendar, year, mon)
{
	var row = createTiddlyElement(calendar, 'tr');
	createCalendarMonthHeader(calendar, row, config.macros.calendar.monthnames[mon]+' '+year, true, year, mon);
	row = createTiddlyElement(calendar, 'tr');
	createCalendarDayHeader(row, 1);
	createCalendarDayRowsSingle(calendar, year, mon);
}
//}}}
//{{{
function createCalendarMonth(calendar, year, mon)
{
	var row = createTiddlyElement(calendar, 'tr');
	createCalendarMonthHeader(calendar, row, config.macros.calendar.monthnames[mon]+' '+ year, false, year, mon);
	row = createTiddlyElement(calendar, 'tr');
	createCalendarDayHeader(row, 1);
	createCalendarDayRowsSingle(calendar, year, mon);
}
//}}}
//{{{
function createCalendarYear(calendar, year)
{
	var row;
	row = createTiddlyElement(calendar, 'tr');
	var back = createTiddlyElement(row, 'td');
	var backHandler = function() {
		removeChildren(calendar);
		createCalendarYear(calendar, parseInt(year)-1);
		return false; // consume click
	};
	createTiddlyButton(back, '<', 'Previous year', backHandler);
	back.align = 'center';
	var yearHeader = createTiddlyElement(row, 'td', null, 'calendarYear', year);
	yearHeader.align = 'center';
	yearHeader.setAttribute('colSpan',config.options.chkDisplayWeekNumbers?22:19);//wn**
	var fwd = createTiddlyElement(row, 'td');
	var fwdHandler = function() {
		removeChildren(calendar);
		createCalendarYear(calendar, parseInt(year)+1);
		return false; // consume click
	};
	createTiddlyButton(fwd, '>', 'Next year', fwdHandler);
	fwd.align = 'center';
	createCalendarMonthRow(calendar, year, 0);
	createCalendarMonthRow(calendar, year, 3);
	createCalendarMonthRow(calendar, year, 6);
	createCalendarMonthRow(calendar, year, 9);
}
//}}}
//{{{
function createCalendarMonthRow(cal, year, mon)
{
	var row = createTiddlyElement(cal, 'tr');
	createCalendarMonthHeader(cal, row, config.macros.calendar.monthnames[mon], false, year, mon);
	createCalendarMonthHeader(cal, row, config.macros.calendar.monthnames[mon+1], false, year, mon);
	createCalendarMonthHeader(cal, row, config.macros.calendar.monthnames[mon+2], false, year, mon);
	row = createTiddlyElement(cal, 'tr');
	createCalendarDayHeader(row, 3);
	createCalendarDayRows(cal, year, mon);
}
//}}}
//{{{
function createCalendarMonthHeader(cal, row, name, nav, year, mon)
{
	var month;
	if (nav) {
		var back = createTiddlyElement(row, 'td');
		back.align = 'center';
		back.style.background = config.macros.calendar.monthbg;

		var backMonHandler = function() {
			var newyear = year;
			var newmon = mon-1;
			if(newmon == -1) { newmon = 11; newyear = newyear-1;}
			removeChildren(cal);
			cacheReminders(new Date(newyear, newmon , 1, 0, 0), 31);
			createCalendarOneMonth(cal, newyear, newmon);
			return false; // consume click
		};
		createTiddlyButton(back, '<', 'Previous month', backMonHandler);
		month = createTiddlyElement(row, 'td', null, 'calendarMonthname')
		createTiddlyLink(month,name,true);
		month.setAttribute('colSpan', config.options.chkDisplayWeekNumbers?6:5);//wn**
		var fwd = createTiddlyElement(row, 'td');
		fwd.align = 'center';
		fwd.style.background = config.macros.calendar.monthbg; 

		var fwdMonHandler = function() {
			var newyear = year;
			var newmon = mon+1;
			if(newmon == 12) { newmon = 0; newyear = newyear+1;}
			removeChildren(cal);
			cacheReminders(new Date(newyear, newmon , 1, 0, 0), 31);
			createCalendarOneMonth(cal, newyear, newmon);
			return false; // consume click
		};
		createTiddlyButton(fwd, '>', 'Next month', fwdMonHandler);
	} else {
		month = createTiddlyElement(row, 'td', null, 'calendarMonthname', name)
		month.setAttribute('colSpan',config.options.chkDisplayWeekNumbers?8:7);//wn**
	}
	month.align = 'center';
	month.style.background = config.macros.calendar.monthbg;
}
//}}}
//{{{
function createCalendarDayHeader(row, num)
{
	var cell;
	for(var i = 0; i < num; i++) {
		if (config.options.chkDisplayWeekNumbers) createTiddlyElement(row, 'td');//wn**
		for(var j = 0; j < 7; j++) {
			var d = j + (config.options.txtCalFirstDay - 0);
			if(d > 6) d = d - 7;
			cell = createTiddlyElement(row, 'td', null, null, config.macros.calendar.daynames[d]);
			if(d == (config.options.txtCalStartOfWeekend-0) || d == (config.options.txtCalStartOfWeekend-0+1))
				cell.style.background = config.macros.calendar.weekendbg;
		}
	}
}
//}}}
//{{{
function createCalendarDays(row, col, first, max, year, mon) {
	var i;
	if (config.options.chkDisplayWeekNumbers){
		if (first<=max) {
			var ww = new Date(year,mon,first);
			var td=createTiddlyElement(row, 'td');//wn**
			var link=createTiddlyLink(td,ww.formatString(config.options.txtWeekNumberLinkFormat),false);
			link.appendChild(document.createTextNode(
				ww.formatString(config.options.txtWeekNumberDisplayFormat)));
		}
		else createTiddlyElement(row, 'td');//wn**
	}
	for(i = 0; i < col; i++)
		createTiddlyElement(row, 'td');
	var day = first;
	for(i = col; i < 7; i++) {
		var d = i + (config.options.txtCalFirstDay - 0);
		if(d > 6) d = d - 7;
		var daycell = createTiddlyElement(row, 'td');
		var isaWeekend=((d==(config.options.txtCalStartOfWeekend-0)
			|| d==(config.options.txtCalStartOfWeekend-0+1))?true:false);
		if(day > 0 && day <= max) {
			var celldate = new Date(year, mon, day);
			// ELS 10/30/05 - use <<date>> macro's showDate() function to create popup
			// ELS 05/29/06 - use journalDateFmt 
			if (window.showDate) showDate(daycell,celldate,'popup','DD',
				config.macros.calendar.journalDateFmt,true, isaWeekend);
			else {
				if(isaWeekend) daycell.style.background = config.macros.calendar.weekendbg;
				var title = celldate.formatString(config.macros.calendar.journalDateFmt);
				if(calendarIsHoliday(celldate))
					daycell.style.background = config.macros.calendar.holidaybg;
				var now=new Date();
				if ((now-celldate>=0) && (now-celldate<86400000)) // is today?
					daycell.style.background = config.macros.calendar.todaybg;
				if(window.findTiddlersWithReminders == null) {
					var link = createTiddlyLink(daycell, title, false);
					link.appendChild(document.createTextNode(day));
				} else
					var button = createTiddlyButton(daycell, day, title, onClickCalendarDate);
			}
		}
		day++;
	}
}
//}}}
//{{{
// Create a pop-up containing:
// * a link to a tiddler for this date
// * a 'new tiddler' link to add a reminder for this date
// * links to current reminders for this date
// NOTE: this code is only used if [[ReminderMacros]] is installed AND [[DatePlugin]] is //not// installed.
function onClickCalendarDate(ev) { ev=ev||window.event;
	var d=new Date(this.getAttribute('title')); var date=d.formatString(config.macros.calendar.journalDateFmt);
	var p=Popup.create(this);  if (!p) return;
	createTiddlyLink(createTiddlyElement(p,'li'),date,true);
	var rem='\\n\\<\\<reminder day:%0 month:%1 year:%2 title: \\>\\>';
	rem=rem.format([d.getDate(),d.getMonth()+1,d.getYear()+1900]);
	var cmd="<<newTiddler label:[[new reminder...]] prompt:[[add a new reminder to '%0']]"
		+" title:[[%0]] text:{{store.getTiddlerText('%0','')+'%1'}} tag:%2>>";
	wikify(cmd.format([date,rem,config.options.txtCalendarReminderTags]),p);
	createTiddlyElement(p,'hr');
	var t=findTiddlersWithReminders(d,[0,31],null,1);
	for(var i=0; i<t.length; i++) {
		var link=createTiddlyLink(createTiddlyElement(p,'li'), t[i].tiddler, false);
		link.appendChild(document.createTextNode(t[i]['params']['title']));
	}
	Popup.show(); ev.cancelBubble=true; if (ev.stopPropagation) ev.stopPropagation(); return false;
}
//}}}
//{{{
function calendarMaxDays(year, mon)
{
	var max = config.macros.calendar.monthdays[mon];
	if(mon == 1 && (year % 4) == 0 && ((year % 100) != 0 || (year % 400) == 0)) max++;
	return max;
}
//}}}
//{{{
function createCalendarDayRows(cal, year, mon)
{
	var row = createTiddlyElement(cal, 'tr');
	var first1 = (new Date(year, mon, 1)).getDay() -1 - (config.options.txtCalFirstDay-0);
	if(first1 < 0) first1 = first1 + 7;
	var day1 = -first1 + 1;
	var first2 = (new Date(year, mon+1, 1)).getDay() -1 - (config.options.txtCalFirstDay-0);
	if(first2 < 0) first2 = first2 + 7;
	var day2 = -first2 + 1;
	var first3 = (new Date(year, mon+2, 1)).getDay() -1 - (config.options.txtCalFirstDay-0);
	if(first3 < 0) first3 = first3 + 7;
	var day3 = -first3 + 1;

	var max1 = calendarMaxDays(year, mon);
	var max2 = calendarMaxDays(year, mon+1);
	var max3 = calendarMaxDays(year, mon+2);

	while(day1 <= max1 || day2 <= max2 || day3 <= max3) {
		row = createTiddlyElement(cal, 'tr');
		createCalendarDays(row, 0, day1, max1, year, mon); day1 += 7;
		createCalendarDays(row, 0, day2, max2, year, mon+1); day2 += 7;
		createCalendarDays(row, 0, day3, max3, year, mon+2); day3 += 7;
	}
}
//}}}
//{{{
function createCalendarDayRowsSingle(cal, year, mon)
{
	var row = createTiddlyElement(cal, 'tr');
	var first1 = (new Date(year, mon, 1)).getDay() -1 - (config.options.txtCalFirstDay-0);
	if(first1 < 0) first1 = first1+ 7;
	var day1 = -first1 + 1;
	var max1 = calendarMaxDays(year, mon);
	while(day1 <= max1) {
		row = createTiddlyElement(cal, 'tr');
		createCalendarDays(row, 0, day1, max1, year, mon); day1 += 7;
	}
}
//}}}
//{{{
setStylesheet('.calendar, .calendar table, .calendar th, .calendar tr, .calendar td { font-size:10pt; text-align:center; } .calendar, .calendar a { margin:0px !important; padding:0px !important; }', 'calendarStyles');
//}}}
Soccer, like most sports, is a game full of surprises and lucky or unlucky breaks. After all, if it was easy to predict the winner of a soccer match, there wouldn’t be much reason to watch it. But a team of scientists says that soccer is actually a simple match in statistical terms. To demonstrate, they have derived a function that can predict the expected average outcome of a match in terms of the goal difference between the two competing teams.

Source: [[Can a formula predict the outcome of a soccer match?|http://www.physorg.com/news186994712.html]]
<html><object width="425" height="344"><param name="movie" value="http://www.youtube.com/v/-DzQ1aJKA0Y&color1=0xb1b1b1&color2=0xcfcfcf&hl=en&feature=player_embedded&fs=1"></param><param name="allowFullScreen" value="true"></param><param name="allowScriptAccess" value="always"></param><embed src="http://www.youtube.com/v/-DzQ1aJKA0Y&color1=0xb1b1b1&color2=0xcfcfcf&hl=en&feature=player_embedded&fs=1" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" allowfullscreen="true" allowScriptAccess="always" width="425" height="344"></embed></object></html>
Cause Behind the Characteristic Shape of a Long Leaf Revealed

ScienceDaily (Nov. 26, 2009) — Applied mathematicians dissected the morphology of the plantain lily (Hosta lancifolia), a characteristic long leaf with a saddle-like arc midsection and closely packed ripples along the edges. The simple cause of the lily's fan-like shape -- elastic relaxation resulting from bending during differential growth -- was revealed by using an equally simple technique, stretching foam ribbons.

Haiyi Liang, a postdoctoral student at Harvard's School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS), and L. Mahadevan, the Lola England de Valpine Professor of Applied Mathematics at SEAS and a core faculty member of the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering, were inspired to study the formation of laminae (thin leaf-like structures) because they are so commonplace in biology.

The work had its origins in conversations that Mahadevan had with experimental biologists Mimi Koehl at the University of California, Berkeley and Wendy Silk from the University of California, Davis, who showed him examples of such morphologies in long submarine algal blades.

"These blades have rippled edges when they grow in slowly moving water. When they are transplanted to environments that have rapidly moving water, they generate new blades which are much narrower," says Mahadevan. "This example of phenotypic plasticity, or the ability of the algae to change their shape in response to environmental forces, led to a paper co-authored with Koehl and Silk last year that focused primarily on the experimental findings."

Inspired by this, Mahadevan and Liang developed an analog model to understand how a long leaf is formed by pulling flat, foam ribbons, measuring approximately 4.3" x 1.5" (about the size of a large bookmark), beyond their elastic limit and then letting them go. These stretching strains were applied preferentially to the horizontal edges so that the foam ribbon naturally forms a saddle-like shape when it relaxes. In the same scenario, but with a four-fold increase of strain on the horizontal edges, ripples will form along the edges, producing a series of small undulating waves.

An equivalent growth-induced strain, highest along the edges and lessening toward the middle, occurs as a long leaf grows, leading to the elegant arc and serrated surface of the leaves in plants like the lily. This effect is widely seen, says Mahadevan, in a variety of common objects and activities.

"When knitting a scarf, as the number of stitches is increased as the knitter moves away from the center, the material forms a saddle shape. As the edge length becomes much larger ripples begin to appear. The same effect can be seen when thin potato slices are dropped into hot oil to make chips. You end up with a bulbous middle and wrinkled edges," he explains.

Source: [[Cause behind the characteristic shape of a long leaf revealed|http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/11/091123152226.htm]]
!Clocks

[[Interactivate Stopwatch |http://www.shodor.org/interactivate/activities/Stopwatch/?version=1.5.0_07&browser=MSIE&vendor=Sun_Microsystems_Inc.]]
[[Online Stopwatch |http://www.online-stopwatch.com/]]
[[TIME ONLINE |http://www.mrkent.com/clock/]]
Closing the door on potential pandemics

VIEWPOINT - William Karesh

Geographic and environmental boundaries that once protected us from widespread disease outbreaks are no more, says William Karesh. In this week's Green Room, he calls for the West to adopt a "prevention is better than cure" approach to human and animal health.

During the 1918 Spanish Flu pandemic that killed up to 100 million people worldwide, children sang a nursery rhyme: "I had a little bird, Its name was Enza, I opened the window, and in-flu-enza."

Today, the expanding human population and activity has opened the pandemic "window" even wider. A major component of any strategy to protect ourselves must involve treating disease before it gets to us. We are reminded by the recent World Health Organization designation of a H1N1 pandemic that infectious diseases have little regard for the Darwinian divide.

Humans share more than 60% of "known" infectious organisms with animals, and the majority of new or emerging diseases are linked in some way to wild animals; ebola, HIV/Aids, Sars, and Avian influenza are just a few examples.

But don't blame the animals; these diseases in humans stem from how we move about the planet, interact with animals and the environment, educate our citizens, provide or don't provide health services, and deal with poverty and hunger. 

Source: [[BBC NEWS : Science & Environment : Closing the door on potential pandemics|http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/8170278.stm]]
!Collaboration
[[TempEMail |http://www.tempemail.net/]]
[[Email Live - Online Email Checker FtpLive.com |http://www.ftplive.com/email.html]]
[[POPmailChecker  |http://www.popmailchecker.com/]]
!Email tools
[[edu 2.0 welcome to the future of education |http://www.edu20.org/]]
[[Imagination Cubed |http://www.imaginationcubed.com/index.php]]
[[skrbl online whiteboard |http://www.skrbl.com/]]
[[Twiddle This!|http://www.twiddla.com/]] 
There are several comic generating software packages and online tools, these are a few I have found that are free and very seay to use. Comics can be a very simple way of producing interesting display and revision material.

[[readwritethink Student Materials Comic Creator |http://www.readwritethink.org/student_mat/student_material.asp?id=21]]
[[stripcreator make a comic |http://www.stripcreator.com/make.php]]
[[Stripgenerator v1.0.3 |http://stripgenerator.com/]]
[[Witty Comics - Make a Comic |http://www.wittycomics.com/make-comic.php]]
[[A-level pure mathematics test|http://www.cimt.plymouth.ac.uk/interactive/ttaaudits/a-pure/default.htm]] 

[[Algebra links]]
[[Calculus links]]
[[Geometry links]]
[[Number links]]
ScienceDaily (Sep. 25, 2009) — By carefully observing and analyzing the pattern of activity in the brain, researchers have found that they can tell what number a person has just seen. They can similarly tell how many dots a person has been presented with, according to a report published online on September 24th in Current Biology, a Cell Press publication.

These findings confirm the notion that numbers are encoded in the brain via detailed and specific activity patterns and open the door to more sophisticated exploration of humans' high-level numerical abilities. Although "number-tuned" neurons have been found in monkeys, scientists hadn't managed to get any farther than particular brain regions before now in humans.

Source: [[Cracking The Brain's Numerical Code: Researchers Can Tell What Number A Person Has Seen|http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/09/090924123306.htm]]
Criminologist says crime statistic data may have problems

By Paul Srubas • psrubas@greenbaypressgazette • October 1, 2009

Crime rates in Wisconsin and in the Green Bay area are dropping — but the news may not be as good as it sounds, a local criminologist says.
Advertisement

The data, as reported by the state Office of Justice assistance last month, may at best be a mystery and at worst simply be inaccurate, said associate professor Andrew Austin, chairman of the sociology department at the University of Wisconsin-Green Bay.

The Uniform Crime Report is compiled annually based on reports filed by police agencies from throughout the country.

Wisconsin's report, released in September, measures both violent crime and crimes against property as recorded by police.

It shows Wisconsin's violent crimes fell 4.6 percent from 2007 to 2008.

Green Bay's violent crimes dropped much more dramatically, falling 19 percent in the period. Green Bay saw a 13 percent increase in forcible rapes and 17 percent increase in robberies, but a 30 percent drop in aggravated assaults. The number of murders is too small to have much statistical significance; it dropped from three to two, for a 33 percent decrease.

Property crimes — burglary, theft, motor vehicle theft and arson — dropped 2.5 percent in the state and 9 percent in Green Bay in the period.

The crime numbers from other area communities were too low to have statistical significance. For example, Pulaski's violent crimes increased 25 percent in the period, going from four to five. All police agencies from Brown and six surrounding counties showed a combined violent crime total of about half of Green Bay's.

Uniform Crime Report statistics for this year to date are not available, but Green Bay's numbers have been continuing to drop. Citing the police department's records, Mayor Jim Schmitt last week said violent crimes are down 3.6 percent and property crimes down 7.2 percent compared with last year. If this year's trend continues, the area will hit a nine-year low in violent crimes, Schmitt said.

Source: [[Criminologist says crime statistic data may have problems : greenbaypressgazette.com : Green Bay Press-Gazette|http://www.greenbaypressgazette.com/article/20091001/GPG0101/910010611/1978&located=rss]]
!DNA Sudoku: Logic Of 'Sudoku' Math Puzzle Used To Vastly Enhance Genome-sequencing Capability

~ScienceDaily (June 25, 2009) — A math-based game that has taken the world by storm with its ability to delight and puzzle may now be poised to revolutionize the fast-changing world of genome sequencing and the field of medical genetics, suggests a new report by a team of scientists at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL). The report will be published as the cover story in the July 1st issue of the journal Genome Research.

Combining a 2,000-year-old Chinese math theorem with concepts from cryptology, the CSHL scientists have devised "DNA Sudoku." The strategy allows tens of thousands of DNA samples to be combined, and their sequences – the order in which the letters of the DNA alphabet (A, T, G, and C) line up in the genome – to be determined all at once.

This achievement is in stark contrast to past approaches that allowed only a single DNA sample to be sequenced at a time. It also significantly improves upon current approaches that, at best, can combine hundreds of samples for sequencing.

Source: [[DNA Sudoku: Logic Of 'Sudoku' Math Puzzle Used To Vastly Enhance Genome-sequencing Capability|http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/06/090624153112.htm]]
Dangerous Knowledge - BBC Documentary
This two part documentary looks at four brilliant mathematicians - Georg Cantor, Ludwig Boltzmann, Kurt Gödel and Alan Turing - whose genius has profoundly affected us, but which tragically drove them insane and eventually led to them all committing suicide.

Episode 1
<html><embed id="VideoPlayback" src="http://video.google.com/googleplayer.swf?docid=-8492625684649921614&amp;hl=en&amp;fs=true" style="WIDTH: 400px; HEIGHT: 326px" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" allowscriptaccess="always" allowfullscreen="true"> </embed></p>
</html>
Episode 2
<html><embed id="VideoPlayback" src="http://video.google.com/googleplayer.swf?docid=-1663091361786740235&amp;hl=en&amp;fs=true" style="WIDTH: 400px; HEIGHT: 326px" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" allowscriptaccess="always" allowfullscreen="true"></p>
</html>
/***
|Name|[[DatePlugin]]|
|Source|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#DatePlugin|
|Documentation|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#DatePluginInfo|
|Version|2.7.1|
|Author|Eric Shulman|
|License|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#LegalStatements|
|~CoreVersion|2.1|
|Type|plugin|
|Requires||
|Overrides||
|Options|##Configuration|
|Description|formatted dates plus popup menu with 'journal' link, changes and (optional) reminders|
This plugin provides a general approach to displaying formatted dates and/or links and popups that permit easy navigation and management of tiddlers based on their creation/modification dates.
!!!!!Documentation
>see [[DatePluginInfo]]
!!!!!Configuration
<<<
<<option chkDatePopupHideCreated>> omit 'created' section from date popups
<<option chkDatePopupHideChanged>> omit 'changed' section from date popups
<<option chkDatePopupHideTagged>> omit 'tagged' section from date popups
<<option chkDatePopupHideReminders>> omit 'reminders' section from date popups
<<option chkShowJulianDate>> display Julian day number (1-365) below current date

see [[DatePluginConfig]] for additional configuration settings, for use in calendar displays, including:
*date formats
*color-coded backgrounds
*annual fixed-date holidays
*weekends
<<<
!!!!!Revisions
<<<
2009.05.31 [2.7.1] in addRemindersToPopup(), 'new reminder....' command now uses {{{<<newTiddler>>}}} macro.  Also, general code reduction/cleanup.
|please see [[DatePluginInfo]] for additional revision details|
2005.10.30 [0.9.0] pre-release
<<<
!!!!!Code
***/
//{{{
version.extensions.DatePlugin= {major: 2, minor: 7, revision: 1, date: new Date(2009,5,31)};

config.macros.date = {
	format: 'YYYY.0MM.0DD', // default date display format
	linkformat: 'YYYY.0MM.0DD', // 'dated tiddler' link format
	linkedbg: '#babb1e', // 'babble'
	todaybg: '#ffab1e', // 'fable'
	weekendbg: '#c0c0c0', // 'cocoa'
	holidaybg: '#ffaace', // 'face'
	createdbg: '#bbeeff', // 'beef'
	modifiedsbg: '#bbeeff', // 'beef'
	remindersbg: '#c0ffee', // 'coffee'
	weekend: [ 1,0,0,0,0,0,1 ], // [ day index values: sun=0, mon=1, tue=2, wed=3, thu=4, fri=5, sat=6 ],
	holidays: [ '01/01', '07/04', '07/24', '11/24' ]
		// NewYearsDay, IndependenceDay(US), Eric's Birthday (hooray!), Thanksgiving(US)
};

config.macros.date.handler = function(place,macroName,params)
{
	// default: display current date
	var now =new Date();
	var date=now;
	var mode='display';
	if (params[0]&&['display','popup','link'].contains(params[0].toLowerCase()))
		{ mode=params[0]; params.shift(); }

	if (!params[0] || params[0]=='today')
		{ params.shift(); }
	else if (params[0]=='filedate')
		{ date=new Date(document.lastModified); params.shift(); }
	else if (params[0]=='tiddler')
		{ date=store.getTiddler(story.findContainingTiddler(place).id.substr(7)).modified; params.shift(); }
	else if (params[0].substr(0,8)=='tiddler:')
		{ var t; if ((t=store.getTiddler(params[0].substr(8)))) date=t.modified; params.shift(); }
	else {
		var y = eval(params.shift().replace(/Y/ig,(now.getYear()<1900)?now.getYear()+1900:now.getYear()));
		var m = eval(params.shift().replace(/M/ig,now.getMonth()+1));
		var d = eval(params.shift().replace(/D/ig,now.getDate()+0));
		date = new Date(y,m-1,d);
	}
	// date format with optional custom override
	var format=this.format; if (params[0]) format=params.shift();
	var linkformat=this.linkformat; if (params[0]) linkformat=params.shift();
	showDate(place,date,mode,format,linkformat);
}

window.showDate=showDate;
function showDate(place,date,mode,format,linkformat,autostyle,weekend)
{
	mode	  =mode||'display';
	format	  =format||config.macros.date.format;
	linkformat=linkformat||config.macros.date.linkformat;

	// format the date output
	var title=date.formatString(format);
	var linkto=date.formatString(linkformat);

	// just show the formatted output
	if (mode=='display') { place.appendChild(document.createTextNode(title)); return; }

	// link to a 'dated tiddler'
	var link = createTiddlyLink(place, linkto, false);
	link.appendChild(document.createTextNode(title));
	link.title = linkto;
	link.date = date;
	link.format = format;
	link.linkformat = linkformat;

	// if using a popup menu, replace click handler for dated tiddler link
	// with handler for popup and make link text non-italic (i.e., an 'existing link' look)
	if (mode=='popup') {
		link.onclick = onClickDatePopup;
		link.style.fontStyle='normal';
	}
	// format the popup link to show what kind of info it contains (for use with calendar generators)
	if (autostyle) setDateStyle(place,link,weekend);
}
//}}}
//{{{
// NOTE: This function provides default logic for setting the date style when displayed in a calendar
// To customize the date style logic, please see[[DatePluginConfig]]
function setDateStyle(place,link,weekend) {
	// alias variable names for code readability
	var date=link.date;
	var fmt=link.linkformat;
	var linkto=date.formatString(fmt);
	var cmd=config.macros.date;

	if ((weekend!==undefined?weekend:isWeekend(date))&&(cmd.weekendbg!=''))
		{ place.style.background = cmd.weekendbg; }
	if (hasModifieds(date)||hasCreateds(date)||hasTagged(date,fmt))
		{ link.style.fontStyle='normal'; link.style.fontWeight='bold'; }
	if (hasReminders(date))
		{ link.style.textDecoration='underline'; }
	if (isToday(date))
		{ link.style.border='1px solid black'; }
	if (isHoliday(date)&&(cmd.holidaybg!=''))
		{ place.style.background = cmd.holidaybg; }
	if (hasCreateds(date)&&(cmd.createdbg!=''))
		{ place.style.background = cmd.createdbg; }
	if (hasModifieds(date)&&(cmd.modifiedsbg!=''))
		{ place.style.background = cmd.modifiedsbg; }
	if ((hasTagged(date,fmt)||store.tiddlerExists(linkto))&&(cmd.linkedbg!=''))
		{ place.style.background = cmd.linkedbg; }
	if (hasReminders(date)&&(cmd.remindersbg!=''))
		{ place.style.background = cmd.remindersbg; }
	if (isToday(date)&&(cmd.todaybg!=''))
		{ place.style.background = cmd.todaybg; }
	if (config.options.chkShowJulianDate) { // optional display of Julian date numbers
		var m=[0,31,59,90,120,151,181,212,243,273,304,334];
		var d=date.getDate()+m[date.getMonth()];
		var y=date.getFullYear();
		if (date.getMonth()>1 && (y%4==0 && y%100!=0) || y%400==0)
			d++; // after February in a leap year
		wikify('@@font-size:80%;<br>'+d+'@@',place);
	}

}
//}}}
//{{{
function isToday(date) // returns true if date is today
	{ var now=new Date(); return ((now-date>=0) && (now-date<86400000)); }
function isWeekend(date) // returns true if date is a weekend
	{ return (config.macros.date.weekend[date.getDay()]); }
function isHoliday(date) // returns true if date is a holiday
{
	var longHoliday = date.formatString('0MM/0DD/YYYY');
	var shortHoliday = date.formatString('0MM/0DD');
	for(var i = 0; i < config.macros.date.holidays.length; i++) {
		var holiday=config.macros.date.holidays[i];
		if (holiday==longHoliday||holiday==shortHoliday) return true;
	}
	return false;
}
//}}}
//{{{
// Event handler for clicking on a day popup
function onClickDatePopup(e) { e=e||window.event;
	var p=Popup.create(this); if (!p) return false;
	// always show dated tiddler link (or just date, if readOnly) at the top...
	if (!readOnly || store.tiddlerExists(this.date.formatString(this.linkformat)))
		createTiddlyLink(createTiddlyElement(p,'li'),this.date.formatString(this.linkformat),true);
	else
		createTiddlyText(createTiddlyElement(p,'li'),this.date.formatString(this.linkformat));
	if (!config.options.chkDatePopupHideCreated)
		addCreatedsToPopup(p,this.date,this.format);
	if (!config.options.chkDatePopupHideChanged)
		addModifiedsToPopup(p,this.date,this.format);
	if (!config.options.chkDatePopupHideTagged)
		addTaggedToPopup(p,this.date,this.linkformat);
	if (!config.options.chkDatePopupHideReminders)
		addRemindersToPopup(p,this.date,this.linkformat);
	Popup.show(); e.cancelBubble=true; if(e.stopPropagation)e.stopPropagation(); return false;
}
//}}}
//{{{
function indexCreateds() // build list of tiddlers, hash indexed by creation date
{
	var createds= { };
	var tiddlers = store.getTiddlers('title','excludeLists');
	for (var t = 0; t < tiddlers.length; t++) {
		var date = tiddlers[t].created.formatString('YYYY0MM0DD')
		if (!createds[date])
			createds[date]=new Array();
		createds[date].push(tiddlers[t].title);
	}
	return createds;
}
function hasCreateds(date) // returns true if date has created tiddlers
{
	if (!config.macros.date.createds) config.macros.date.createds=indexCreateds();
	return (config.macros.date.createds[date.formatString('YYYY0MM0DD')]!=undefined);
}

function addCreatedsToPopup(p,when,format)
{
	var force=(store.isDirty() && when.formatString('YYYY0MM0DD')==new Date().formatString('YYYY0MM0DD'));
	if (force || !config.macros.date.createds) config.macros.date.createds=indexCreateds();
	var indent=String.fromCharCode(160)+String.fromCharCode(160);
	var createds = config.macros.date.createds[when.formatString('YYYY0MM0DD')];
	if (createds) {
		createds.sort();
		var e=createTiddlyElement(p,'div',null,null,'created ('+createds.length+')');
		for(var t=0; t<createds.length; t++) {
			var link=createTiddlyLink(createTiddlyElement(p,'li'),createds[t],false);
			link.appendChild(document.createTextNode(indent+createds[t]));
		}
	}
}
//}}}
//{{{
function indexModifieds() // build list of tiddlers, hash indexed by modification date
{
	var modifieds= { };
	var tiddlers = store.getTiddlers('title','excludeLists');
	for (var t = 0; t < tiddlers.length; t++) {
		var date = tiddlers[t].modified.formatString('YYYY0MM0DD')
		if (!modifieds[date])
			modifieds[date]=new Array();
		modifieds[date].push(tiddlers[t].title);
	}
	return modifieds;
}
function hasModifieds(date) // returns true if date has modified tiddlers
{
	if (!config.macros.date.modifieds) config.macros.date.modifieds = indexModifieds();
	return (config.macros.date.modifieds[date.formatString('YYYY0MM0DD')]!=undefined);
}

function addModifiedsToPopup(p,when,format)
{
	var date=when.formatString('YYYY0MM0DD');
	var force=(store.isDirty() && date==new Date().formatString('YYYY0MM0DD'));
	if (force || !config.macros.date.modifieds) config.macros.date.modifieds=indexModifieds();
	var indent=String.fromCharCode(160)+String.fromCharCode(160);
	var mods = config.macros.date.modifieds[date];
	if (mods) {
		// if a tiddler was created on this date, don't list it in the 'changed' section
		if (config.macros.date.createds && config.macros.date.createds[date]) {
			var temp=[];
			for(var t=0; t<mods.length; t++)
				if (!config.macros.date.createds[date].contains(mods[t]))
					temp.push(mods[t]);
			mods=temp;
		}
		mods.sort();
		var e=createTiddlyElement(p,'div',null,null,'changed ('+mods.length+')');
		for(var t=0; t<mods.length; t++) {
			var link=createTiddlyLink(createTiddlyElement(p,'li'),mods[t],false);
			link.appendChild(document.createTextNode(indent+mods[t]));
		}
	}
}
//}}}
//{{{
function hasTagged(date,format) // returns true if date is tagging other tiddlers
{
	return store.getTaggedTiddlers(date.formatString(format)).length>0;
}

function addTaggedToPopup(p,when,format)
{
	var indent=String.fromCharCode(160)+String.fromCharCode(160);
	var tagged=store.getTaggedTiddlers(when.formatString(format));
	if (tagged.length) var e=createTiddlyElement(p,'div',null,null,'tagged ('+tagged.length+')');
	for(var t=0; t<tagged.length; t++) {
		var link=createTiddlyLink(createTiddlyElement(p,'li'),tagged[t].title,false);
		link.appendChild(document.createTextNode(indent+tagged[t].title));
	}
}
//}}}
//{{{
function indexReminders(date,leadtime) // build list of tiddlers with reminders, hash indexed by reminder date
{
	var reminders = { };
	if(window.findTiddlersWithReminders!=undefined) { // reminder plugin is installed
		var t = findTiddlersWithReminders(date, [0,leadtime], null, null, 1);
		for(var i=0; i<t.length; i++) reminders[t[i].matchedDate]=true;
	}
	return reminders;
}

function hasReminders(date) // returns true if date has reminders
{
	if (window.reminderCacheForCalendar)
		return window.reminderCacheForCalendar[date]; // use calendar cache
	if (!config.macros.date.reminders)
		config.macros.date.reminders = indexReminders(date,90); // create a 90-day leadtime reminder cache
	return (config.macros.date.reminders[date]);
}

function addRemindersToPopup(p,when,format)
{
	if(window.findTiddlersWithReminders==undefined) return; // reminder plugin not installed

	var indent = String.fromCharCode(160)+String.fromCharCode(160);
	var reminders=findTiddlersWithReminders(when, [0,31],null,null,1);
	createTiddlyElement(p,'div',null,null,'reminders ('+(reminders.length||'none')+')');
	for(var t=0; t<reminders.length; t++) {
		link = createTiddlyLink(createTiddlyElement(p,'li'),reminders[t].tiddler,false);
		var diff=reminders[t].diff;
		diff=(diff<1)?'Today':((diff==1)?'Tomorrow':diff+' days');
		var txt=(reminders[t].params['title'])?reminders[t].params['title']:reminders[t].tiddler;
		link.appendChild(document.createTextNode(indent+diff+' - '+txt));
	}
	if (readOnly) return;	// readonly... omit 'new reminder...' command
	var rem='\\<\\<reminder day:%0 month:%1 year:%2 title:"Enter a reminder title here"\\>\\>';
	rem=rem.format([when.getDate(),when.getMonth()+1,when.getYear()+1900]);
	var cmd="<<newTiddler label:[["+indent+"new reminder...]] prompt:[[add a reminder to '%0']]"
		+" title:[[%0]] text:{{var t=store.getTiddlerText('%0','');t+(t.length?'\\n':'')+'%1'}} tag:%2>>";
	wikify(cmd.format([when.formatString(format),rem,config.options.txtCalendarReminderTags||'']),
		createTiddlyElement(p,'li'));
}
//}}}
/***
|Name|DatePluginConfig|
|Source|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#DatePluginConfig|
|Documentation|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#DatePluginInfo|
|Version|2.6.0|
|Author|Eric Shulman|
|License|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#LegalStatements|
|~CoreVersion|2.1|
|Type|plugin|
|Requires||
|Overrides||
|Description|formats, background colors and other optional settings for DatePlugin|
***/
// // Default popup content display options (can be overridden by cookies)
//{{{
if (config.options.chkDatePopupHideCreated===undefined)
	config.options.chkDatePopupHideCreated=false;
if (config.options.chkDatePopupHideChanged===undefined)
	config.options.chkDatePopupHideChanged=false;
if (config.options.chkDatePopupHideTagged===undefined)
	config.options.chkDatePopupHideTagged=false;
if (config.options.chkDatePopupHideReminders===undefined)
	config.options.chkDatePopupHideReminders=false;
//}}}

// // show Julian date number below regular date
//{{{
if (config.options.chkShowJulianDate===undefined)
	config.options.chkShowJulianDate=false;
//}}}

// // fixed-date annual holidays
//{{{
config.macros.date.holidays=[
	"01/01", // NewYearsDay, 
	"07/02"  // Ali's Birthday (hooray!)
];
//}}}

// // weekend map (1=weekend, 0=weekday)
//{{{
config.macros.date.weekend=[ 1,0,0,0,0,0,1 ]; // day index values: sun=0, mon=1, tue=2, wed=3, thu=4, fri=5, sat=6
//}}}

// // date display/link formats
//{{{
config.macros.date.format="YYYY.0MM.0DD"; // default date display format
config.macros.date.linkformat="YYYY.0MM.0DD"; // 'dated tiddler' link format
//}}}

// // When displaying a calendar (see [[CalendarPlugin]]), you can customize the colors/styles that are applied to the calendar dates by modifying the values and/or functions below:
//{{{
// default calendar colors
config.macros.date.weekendbg="#c0c0c0";
config.macros.date.holidaybg="#ffaace";
config.macros.date.createdbg="#bbeeff";
config.macros.date.modifiedsbg="#bbeeff";
config.macros.date.linkedbg="#babb1e";
config.macros.date.remindersbg="#c0ffee";

// apply calendar styles
function setDateStyle(place,link,weekend) {
	// alias variable names for code readability
	var date=link.date;
	var fmt=link.linkformat;
	var linkto=date.formatString(fmt);
	var cmd=config.macros.date;

	if ((weekend!==undefined?weekend:isWeekend(date))&&(cmd.weekendbg!=""))
		{ place.style.background = cmd.weekendbg; }
	if (hasModifieds(date)||hasCreateds(date)||hasTagged(date,fmt))
		{ link.style.fontStyle="normal"; link.style.fontWeight="bold"; }
	if (hasReminders(date))
		{ link.style.textDecoration="underline"; }
	if (isToday(date))
		{ link.style.border="1px solid black"; }
	if (isHoliday(date)&&(cmd.holidaybg!=""))
		{ place.style.background = cmd.holidaybg; }
	if (hasCreateds(date)&&(cmd.createdbg!=""))
		{ place.style.background = cmd.createdbg; }
	if (hasModifieds(date)&&(cmd.modifiedsbg!=""))
		{ place.style.background = cmd.modifiedsbg; }
	if ((hasTagged(date,fmt)||store.tiddlerExists(linkto))&&(cmd.linkedbg!=""))
		{ place.style.background = cmd.linkedbg; }
	if (hasReminders(date)&&(cmd.remindersbg!=""))
		{ place.style.background = cmd.remindersbg; }
	if (isToday(date)&&(cmd.todaybg!=""))
		{ place.style.background = cmd.todaybg; }
	if (config.options.chkShowJulianDate) {
		var m=[0,31,59,90,120,151,181,212,243,273,304,334];
		var d=date.getDate()+m[date.getMonth()];
		var y=date.getFullYear();
		if (date.getMonth()>1 && (y%4==0 && y%100!=0) || y%400==0) d++; // after February in a leap year
		wikify("@@font-size:80%;<br>"+d+"@@",place);
	}
	var t=store.getTiddlerText(linkto,'')
	if (config.options.chkInlineCalendarJournals && t.length) wikify('<br>'+t,place);
}
//}}}
New York Times
By WILLIAM GRIMES - Published: July 16, 2010

David Blackwell, a statistician and mathematician who wrote groundbreaking papers on probability and game theory and was the first black scholar to be admitted to the National Academy of Sciences, died July 8 in Berkeley, Calif. He was 91.

Mr. Blackwell, the son of a railroad worker with a fourth-grade education, taught for nearly 35 years at the University of California, Berkeley, where he became the first black tenured professor.

He made his mark as a free-ranging problem solver in numerous subdisciplines. His fascination with game theory, for example, prompted him to investigate the mathematics of bluffing and to develop a theory on the optimal moment for an advancing duelist to open fire.

“He went from one area to another, and he’d write a fundamental paper in each,” Thomas Ferguson, an emeritus professor of statistics at the University of California, Los Angeles, told the Berkeley Web site. “He would come into a field that had been well studied and find something really new that was remarkable. That was his forte.” 

Source: [[David Blackwell, 91, Statistician and Mathematician, Dies - Obituary (Obit) - NYTimes.com|http://www.nytimes.com/2010/07/17/education/17blackwell.html]]
[[Home]]
The following are a collection of links to help study A level Discrete or Decision Maths.

<<tabs tabClass
Algorithms "" [[Algorithms]]
Graphs_Networks "" [[Graphs and Networks]]
Travelling_Salesman_Problems "" [[Travelling Salesperson Problems]]
Other_Links "" [[Discrete Maths links]]
>>
If you want some useful interactive tools to help study Discrete or Decision Maths, check these [[links|Discrete Maths]]
!!General links
[[Decision Mathematics|http://www.studyfm.org.uk/Restricted%20Access/Decision%20Maths/DecisionIndex.html]]
[[Discrete mathematics - Wikipedia|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Discrete_mathematics]]
[[Discrete Mathematics WWL Chen Notes|http://rutherglen.ics.mq.edu.au/wchen/lndmfolder/lndm.html]]
[[Graph Theory Applets|http://www.flashandmath.com/mathlets/discrete/graphtheory/ ]]
[[Introduction to Network Mathematics|http://webmathematics.net/]]
[[Linear programming graphs in 2 variables|http://www.waldomaths.com/LinProg1NLW.jsp ]]
[[Mathematical Programming|http://www-b2.is.tokushima-u.ac.jp/~ikeda/suuri/main/index.shtml]] 
[[Decision Mathematics and Combinatorics|http://nrich.maths.org/public/leg.php?group_id=26 Nrich.maths.org]]
[[Simple network graphs 1 - Waldo|http://www.waldomaths.com/Network1NLW.jsp]]
[[Traveling Salesman Problem|http://www.tsp.gatech.edu/index.html]] 
[[Travelling salesman problem - Wikipedia|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Travelling_salesman_problem]]
[[Truth Table Applets|http://www.flashandmath.com/mathlets/discrete/truthtables/]] 
<html><object width="425" height="344"><param name="movie" value="http://www.youtube.com/v/dRy2wnD07oE&hl=en_GB&fs=1&"></param><param name="allowFullScreen" value="true"></param><param name="allowscriptaccess" value="always"></param><embed src="http://www.youtube.com/v/dRy2wnD07oE&hl=en_GB&fs=1&" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" allowscriptaccess="always" allowfullscreen="true" width="425" height="344"></embed></object></html>
To download a file means to save it locally on your computer's hard disk. 

All files have been virus checked before uploading - but it is always advisable to use up to date anti virus software to check files downloaded from the internet.
!!!How do you download a file?
The files that can be downloaded are shown as hyperlinks. When clicked on they should begin the download process where you are asked to save the file in a particular location on your computer. However, sometimes a file will download and open in your browser if the appropriate viewer has been installed. This is particularly true for Word, Excel and ~PowerPoint files. This may not be a problem but it is usually better to download these files on to your hard drive first then view them offline as browser viewer can change formating and numbering of files. 

To save files before viewing use the following steps.
*If you are using Internet Explorer, click with the RIGHT mouse button on the hyperlink and choose Save Target.
*If you are using Netscape, click with the RIGHT mouse on the hyperlink and choose Save Link As.

The browser normally prompts you for a folder to which to save files, and it provides a default filename. You can change the folder and filename if you wish. Make a note of the location and name. Once the file is downloaded to your hard drive it can be viewed by double clicking in Windows Explorer.
!!Common File Types 
*Portable Document Format files (.pdf)
>Portable document format was designed to preserve a document's page layout, regardless of the computer platform being used. To view or download these files you need Adobe Acrobat Reader® which can be downloaded for free from the [[Adobe|www.adobe.com]] site. 
*Microsoft Word files (.doc)
>I recommend downloading  MS Word files and opening them using MS  Word. Word files can also be viewed in your browser window using a special viewer such as ~QuickView, but page layout and paragraph numbering may differ from the original document.
*Executable files (.exe)
>Executable or .exe files perform an action when run locally on your computer once they have been downloaded and saved on your hard disk. For example, an .exe file might decompress itself to produce a number of documents, or it might install software when you run it by double-clicking. 
I recommend that you move each downloaded .exe file into its own folder before running it. 
*Zip files (.zip)
>Zip is a compression format used to reduce downloading times. &ldquo;Zipped&rdquo; files can be decompressed using software freely available from http://www.winzip.com/ or http://zipcentral.iscool.net/.
*Microsoft Excel files (.xls) 
>Microsoft Excel is spreadsheet software, designed to manipulate and view numerical data such as statistics. You will need to allow macros to run when using most of the sheets available here. This can be checked by opening Excel and clicking Tools Macros Security and choosing Medium or Low security. Also, some sheets require you have Analysis ~ToolPak installed - this is found by clicking Tools Add ins (you may need the original MS Office disks to do this).I recommend downloading  MS Excel files and opening them using MS Excel or other spreadsheet software.

Finally, if you find any errors or encounter any problems please do not hesitate to <<linkTo email ? aliali at 2july dot co.uk>>.
!!2July Resources
This work is licenced under a Creative Commons Licence.
<html><a rel="license" href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/"><img alt="Creative Commons License" style="border-width:0" src="http://i.creativecommons.org/l/by-nc/3.0/88x31.png" /></a><br /></html>
The resources and downloads written by myself are all free to copy, use and adapt as you wish under the [[Creative Commons|http://creativecommons.org]] licence. I try and only include resources that are free, however some external software and resources may require registration and/or payment for their full use. I have no control over the content of externally provided software or resources, and at times these will change in content and link address.
!!!2July Downloads
<<tabs tabClass
Guide "" [[DownloadGuide]]
2July_A_level_resources "" [[A level resources]]
2July_GCSE_resources "" [[GCSE resources]]
2July_Miscellaneous_resources "" [[Miscellaneous resources]]
General_downloads "" [[General Downloads]]
>>
Type the text for 'New Tiddler'
The following links cover a range of sites that will be of interest to teachers of all age groups and subjects.

<<tabs tabClass
Guide "" [[tabinstructions]]
Teaching_theory "" [[Teaching theory]]
Online_tools "" [[Online teaching tools]]
>>
----
[[Bookhopper|http://www.bookhopper.co.uk]] : If you enjoy reading and want to share your books, then Bookhopper allows you to swap books with others. 
<html>
<form method=post action="http://poll.pollcode.com/Um1"><table border=0 width=150 bgcolor="EEEEEE" cellspacing=0 cellpadding=2><tr><td colspan=2><font face="Verdana" size=1 color="000000"><b>Do you use any of these VLE's (Virtual Learning Environments)?</b></font></td></tr><tr><td width=5><input type=radio name=answer value="1"></td><td><font face="Verdana" size=1 color="000000">Blackboard</font></td></tr><tr><td width=5><input type=radio name=answer value="2"></td><td><font face="Verdana" size=1 color="000000">Moodle</font></td></tr><tr><td width=5><input type=radio name=answer value="3"></td><td><font face="Verdana" size=1 color="000000">Sharepoint</font></td></tr><tr><td width=5><input type=radio name=answer value="4"></td><td><font face="Verdana" size=1 color="000000">Other</font></td></tr><tr><td width=5><input type=radio name=answer value="5"></td><td><font face="Verdana" size=1 color="000000">Don't use one</font></td></tr><tr><td colspan=2><center><input type=submit value="Vote">&nbsp;&nbsp;<input type=submit name=view value="View"></center></td></tr><tr><td bgcolor="white" colspan=2 align=right><font face="Verdana" size=1 color="black">pollcode.com <a href=http://pollcode.com/><font color="navy">free polls</font></a></font></td></tr></table></form>
</html>
<<tagging Education>>
Mathematicians at Michigan Technological University have developed powerful new tools for winnowing out the genes behind some of humanity’s most intractable diseases.

With one, they can cast back through generations to pinpoint the genes behind inherited illness. With another, they have isolated 11 variations within genes—called single nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs or "snips"—associated with type 2 diabetes.

"With chronic, complex diseases like Parkinson's, diabetes and ALS [Lou Gehrig's disease], multiple genes are involved," said Qiuying Sha, an assistant professor of mathematical sciences. "You need a powerful test."

That test is the Ensemble Learning Approach (ELA), software that can detect a set of SNPs that jointly have a significant effect on a disease.

With complex inherited conditions, including type 2 diabetes, single genes may precipitate the disease on their own, while other genes cause disease when they act together. In the past, finding these gene-gene combinations has been especially unwieldy, because the calculations needed to match up suspect genes among the 500,000 or so in the human genome have been virtually impossible.

ELA sidesteps this problem, first by drastically narrowing the field of potentially dangerous genes, and second, by applying statistical methods to determine which SNPs act on their own and which act in combination. "We thought it was pretty cool," Sha said.

To test their model on real data, Sha’s team analyzed genes from over 1,000 people in the United Kingdom, half with type 2 diabetes and half without. They identified 11 SNPs that, singly or in pairs, are linked to the disease with a high degree of probability. Their work was published in the journal Genetic Epidemiology.

Source: [[Eleven Genetic Variations Linked To Type 2 Diabetes|http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/10/091006121115.htm]]
[[A-to-Z of slide rules|http://home.clara.net/sliderules/a-to-z/a-to-z.htm ]]
[[Ambiguously Defined Mathematical Terms at the High School Level|http://jeff560.tripod.com/ambiguities.html ]]
[[BBC - Radio 4 - 5 Numbers - The Imaginary Number|http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/science/5numbers4.shtml ]]
[[Big Numbers and Scientific Notation|http://serc.carleton.edu/quantskills/methods/quantlit/BigNumbers.html ]]
[[Classic Mistake Maths Podcasts and Posters|http://www.calculatorsoftware.co.uk/classicmistake/gallery.htm ]]
[[Date with Numbers|http://www.geocities.com//ramaswamyradha/datewithnumbers.html ]]
[[Earliest Known Uses of Some of the Words of Mathematics|http://jeff560.tripod.com/mathword.html ]]
[[Earliest Uses of Various Mathematical Symbols|http://jeff560.tripod.com/mathsym.html ]]
[[Gresham College Search Lectures & Events|http://www.gresham.ac.uk/events.asp?pageid=4]] 
[[Historical Math Student Task|http://score.kings.k12.ca.us/lessons/historical/studtask.html ]]
[[History of Mathematics by Region|http://aleph0.clarku.edu/~djoyce/mathhist/earth.html ]]
[[History of Mathematics Zero|http://www.math.rutgers.edu/~cherlin/History/Papers1999/bhat.html ]]
[[Images of Mathematicians on Postage Stamps|http://jeff560.tripod.com/stamps.html ]]
[[MacTutor History of Mathematics|http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/index.html ]]
[[Math 330 History of Mathematics|http://public.csusm.edu/aitken_html/m330/ ]]
[[Math Forum Famous Problems in the History of Mathematics|http://mathforum.org/isaac/mathhist.html ]]
[[Mathematical Biology|http://www.bio.brandeis.edu/biomath/menu.html ]]
[[Mathematics in Movies|http://www.math.harvard.edu/~knill/mathmovies/ ]]
[[Mathematics Enrichment|http://nrich.maths.org/public/ nrich.maths.org ]]
[[NUMB3RS - Wolfram Research Math Notes|http://numb3rs.wolfram.com/season1.html ]]
[[Number Gossip|http://www.numbergossip.com/ ]]
[[NumberADay|http://maanumberaday.blogspot.com/]] 
[[Origins of some arithmetic terms|http://www.pballew.net/arithme3.html#tangent ]]
[[Portraits of mathematicians and philosophers|http://www.bun.kyoto-u.ac.jp/phisci/archives/gallerye.html ]]
[[Ramanujan|http://www.imsc.res.in/%7Erao/ramanujan/contentindex.html]]
[[The Babbage Pages Homepage|http://projects.exeter.ac.uk/babbage/ ]]
[[The Fibonacci Numbers and Golden section in Nature|http://www.mcs.surrey.ac.uk/Personal/R.Knott/Fibonacci/fibnat.html ]]
[[The Pi Pages|http://oldweb.cecm.sfu.ca/pi/pi.html ]]
[[Timeline of mathematics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_mathematics#Before_1000_BC]]
[[USAMTS Gallery|http://www.usamts.org/Gallery/G_Gallery.php ]]
[[iSquared magazine|http://www.isquaredmagazine.co.uk/]]
[[What Can You Do With A Slide Rule|http://www.math.utah.edu/~pa/sliderules/ ]]
[[Xah Algorithmic Mathematical Art|http://xahlee.org/Periodic_dosage_dir/t1/20040113_cmaci_larcu.html ]]
Video 1
Nice video clip demonstrating how Eratosthenes calculated the circumference of the Earth
<html>
<embed id="VideoPlayback" src="http://video.google.com/googleplayer.swf?docId=-6996072263812322964&hl=en-GB" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" style="WIDTH: 400px; HEIGHT: 326px" /></embed />
</html>

Video 2
Clip from Carl Sagan's Cosmos
<html>
<embed id="VideoPlayback" src="http://video.google.com/googleplayer.swf?docId=-3973356878310464582&hl=en-GB" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" style="WIDTH: 400px; HEIGHT: 326px" flashvars="&subtitle=on" /></embed />
</html>
!!!1. What is a GCSE or AS/A2
In the UK, at the age of 16, students take a set of examinations making the end of compulsory education. These are

a) GCSE's - General Certificates of Secondary Education. For mathematics there are 2 tiers of examinations that students can take,

*Foundation level : lowest level achieving grades G to C
*Higher level : achieving grades D to A*

The average grade at GCSE grade at GCSE level is taken to be D, but most colleges and employers will expect a grade C or above in Maths and English.

''Update'' : The GCSE Maths levels changed in 2008 to Foundation and Higher levels from a 3 teir system that had Foundation, Intermediate and Higher levels. In the previous system, students taking Foundation level could only achieve a maximum of a D grade. 

b) AS/A2 levels - Advanced level courses taken after GCSE's. usually at colleges and required prior to going to university to study for a degree. The two types are AS - for 1st year courses - and A2 - for second year courses. Student usually take 4 AS's in the first year then specialise in 3 A2's in the second year.
!!!2. Are these the only qualifications ?
No. There are a series of vocational qualifications that students can take at GCSE and AS/A2 levels. These are GNVQ's (general national vocational qualification) and AVCE's (advanced vocational certificate of education) respectively. 

There are also qualifications that are known as Key Skills in Application of Number, Communication and Information Technology. However, these have not been very successful despite attempts to make them compulsory at post 16 education.
!!!3. Who is 2July aimed at ?
Originally it was set up to share resources and information with colleagues and students, especially as the college or school IT systems were either unavailable or too difficult to update and amend as required.

It has been running for almost 6 years in one form or another, now known as 2July for the last 3 years.
!!!4. Are the resources and downloads free ?
<html><a rel="license" href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/"><img alt="Creative Commons License" style="border-width:0" src="http://i.creativecommons.org/l/by-nc/3.0/88x31.png" /></a><br /></html>.
The resources and downloads written by myself are all free to copy, use and adapt as you wish under the [[Creative Commons|http://creativecommons.org]] licence. I try and only include resources that are free, however some external software and resources may require registration and/or payment for their full use. I have no control over the content of externally provided software or resources, and at times these will change in content and link address.
The Proof

<html>
<embed id="VideoPlayback" src="http://video.google.com/googleplayer.swf?docId=8269328330690408516&hl=en-GB&playerMode=max" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" style="WIDTH: 400px; HEIGHT: 326px" /></embed />
</html>
[[ScienceDaily|http://www.sciencedaily.com]] (Jan. 6, 2010) — Girls around the world are not worse at math than boys, even though boys are more confident in their math abilities, and girls from countries where gender equity is more prevalent are more likely to perform better on mathematics assessment tests, according to a new analysis of international research.

"Stereotypes about female inferiority in mathematics are a distinct contrast to the actual scientific data," said Nicole ~Else-Quest, ~PhD, a psychology professor at Villanova University, and lead author of the meta-analysis. "These results show that girls will perform at the same level as the boys when they are given the right educational tools and have visible female role models excelling in mathematics."

The results are reported in the latest issue of Psychological Bulletin, published by the American Psychological Association. The finding that girls around the world appear to have less confidence in their mathematical abilities could help explain why young girls are less likely than boys to pursue careers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics.

Source: [[Few gender differences in math abilities, worldwide study finds|http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/01/100105112303.htm]]
Here are some examples that show the usage of the write action in the ForEachTiddlerMacro.

//''Select and Sort Examples''//
* InClauseExamples
* WhereClauseExamples
* SortClauseExamples
* ScriptClauseExamples
//''Action Examples''//
* AddToListActionExamples
* WriteActionExamples


Of cause you may also combine the examples, e.g. taking the whereClause of one example, the sortClause of a second and the action of a third.
//~~(Part of the [[ForEachTiddlerPlugin]])~~//

Create customizable lists, tables etc. for your selections of tiddlers. Specify the tiddlers to include and their order through a powerful language.

''Syntax:'' 
|>|{{{<<}}}''forEachTiddler'' [''in'' //tiddlyWikiPath//] [''where'' //whereCondition//] [''sortBy'' //sortExpression// [''ascending'' //or// ''descending'']] [''script'' //scriptText//] [//action// [//actionParameters//]]{{{>>}}}|
|//tiddlyWikiPath//|The filepath to the TiddlyWiki the macro should work on. When missing the current TiddlyWiki is used.|
|//whereCondition//|(quoted) JavaScript boolean expression. May refer to the build-in variables {{{tiddler}}} and {{{context}}}.|
|//sortExpression//|(quoted) JavaScript expression returning "comparable" objects (using '{{{<}}}','{{{>}}}','{{{==}}}'. May refer to the build-in variables {{{tiddler}}} and {{{context}}}.|
|//scriptText//|(quoted) JavaScript text. Typically defines JavaScript functions that are called by the various JavaScript expressions (whereClause, sortClause, action arguments,...)|
|//action//|The action that should be performed on every selected tiddler, in the given order. By default the actions [[addToList|AddToListAction]] and [[write|WriteAction]] are supported. When no action is specified [[addToList|AddToListAction]] is used.|
|//actionParameters//|(action specific) parameters the action may refer while processing the tiddlers (see action descriptions for details). <<tiddler [[JavaScript in actionParameters]]>>|
|>|~~Syntax formatting: Keywords in ''bold'', optional parts in [...]. 'or' means that exactly one of the two alternatives must exist.~~|


''Using JavaScript''

To give you a lot of flexibility the [[ForEachTiddlerMacro]] uses JavaScript in its arguments. Even if you are not that familiar with JavaScript you may find forEachTiddler useful. Just have a look at the various ready-to-use [[ForEachTiddlerExamples]] and adapt them to your needs.

''The Elements of the Macro''

The arguments of the ForEachTiddlerMacro consist of multiple parts, each of them being optional.

<<slider chkFETInClause [[inClause]] "inClause" "inClause">>
<<slider chkFETWhereClause [[whereClause]] "whereClause" "whereClause">>
<<slider chkFETSortClause [[sortClause]] "sortClause" "sortClause">>
<<slider chkFETScriptClause [[scriptClause]] "scriptClause" "scriptClause">>
<<slider chkFETActions [[Action Specification]] "Action Specification" "Action Specification">>

''Using Macros and ">" inside the forEachTiddler Macro''

You may use other macro calls into the expression, especially in the actionParameters. To avoid that the {{{>>}}} of such a macro call is misinterpreted as the end of the {{{<<forEachTiddler...>>}}} macro you must escape the {{{>>}}} of the inner macro with {{{$))}}} E.g. if you want to use {{{<<tiddler ...>>}}} inside the {{{forEachTiddler}}} macro you have to write {{{<<tiddler ...$))}}}.

In addition it is necessary to escape single {{{>}}} with the text {{{$)}}}.

''Using {{{<<tiddler ... with: ...>>}}} to re-use ForEachTiddler definitions''

Sometimes you may want to use a certain ForEachTiddler definition in slight variations. E.g. you may want to list either the tiddlers tagged with "ToDo" and in the other case with "Done". To do so you may use "Tiddler parameters". Here an example:

Replace the variable part of the ForEachTiddler definition with $1 ($2,... $9 are supported). E.g. you may create the tiddler "ListTaggedTiddlers" like this
{{{
<<forEachTiddler 
 where 
 'tiddler.tags.contains("$1")'
>>
}}}

Now you can use the ListTaggedTiddlers for various specific tags, using the {{{<<tiddler ...>>}}} macro:
{{{
<<tiddler ListTaggedTiddlers with: "systemConfig">>
}}}
{{{
<<tiddler ListTaggedTiddlers with: "Plugin">>
}}}


See also [[ForEachTiddlerExamples]].
/***
|''Name:''|ForEachTiddlerPlugin|
|''Version:''|1.0.8 (2007-04-12)|
|''Source:''|http://tiddlywiki.abego-software.de/#ForEachTiddlerPlugin|
|''Author:''|UdoBorkowski (ub [at] abego-software [dot] de)|
|''Licence:''|[[BSD open source license (abego Software)|http://www.abego-software.de/legal/apl-v10.html]]|
|''Copyright:''|&copy; 2005-2007 [[abego Software|http://www.abego-software.de]]|
|''TiddlyWiki:''|1.2.38+, 2.0|
|''Browser:''|Firefox 1.0.4+; Firefox 1.5; InternetExplorer 6.0|
!Description

Create customizable lists, tables etc. for your selections of tiddlers. Specify the tiddlers to include and their order through a powerful language.

''Syntax:'' 
|>|{{{<<}}}''forEachTiddler'' [''in'' //tiddlyWikiPath//] [''where'' //whereCondition//] [''sortBy'' //sortExpression// [''ascending'' //or// ''descending'']] [''script'' //scriptText//] [//action// [//actionParameters//]]{{{>>}}}|
|//tiddlyWikiPath//|The filepath to the TiddlyWiki the macro should work on. When missing the current TiddlyWiki is used.|
|//whereCondition//|(quoted) JavaScript boolean expression. May refer to the build-in variables {{{tiddler}}} and  {{{context}}}.|
|//sortExpression//|(quoted) JavaScript expression returning "comparable" objects (using '{{{<}}}','{{{>}}}','{{{==}}}'. May refer to the build-in variables {{{tiddler}}} and  {{{context}}}.|
|//scriptText//|(quoted) JavaScript text. Typically defines JavaScript functions that are called by the various JavaScript expressions (whereClause, sortClause, action arguments,...)|
|//action//|The action that should be performed on every selected tiddler, in the given order. By default the actions [[addToList|AddToListAction]] and [[write|WriteAction]] are supported. When no action is specified [[addToList|AddToListAction]]  is used.|
|//actionParameters//|(action specific) parameters the action may refer while processing the tiddlers (see action descriptions for details). <<tiddler [[JavaScript in actionParameters]]>>|
|>|~~Syntax formatting: Keywords in ''bold'', optional parts in [...]. 'or' means that exactly one of the two alternatives must exist.~~|

See details see [[ForEachTiddlerMacro]] and [[ForEachTiddlerExamples]].

!Revision history
* v1.0.8 (2007-04-12)
** Adapted to latest TiddlyWiki 2.2 Beta importTiddlyWiki API (introduced with changeset 2004). TiddlyWiki 2.2 Beta builds prior to changeset 2004 are no longer supported (but TiddlyWiki 2.1 and earlier, of cause)
* v1.0.7 (2007-03-28)
** Also support "pre" formatted TiddlyWikis (introduced with TW 2.2) (when using "in" clause to work on external tiddlers)
* v1.0.6 (2006-09-16)
** Context provides "viewerTiddler", i.e. the tiddler used to view the macro. Most times this is equal to the "inTiddler", but when using the "tiddler" macro both may be different.
** Support "begin", "end" and "none" expressions in "write" action
* v1.0.5 (2006-02-05)
** Pass tiddler containing the macro with wikify, context object also holds reference to tiddler containing the macro ("inTiddler"). Thanks to SimonBaird.
** Support Firefox 1.5.0.1
** Internal
*** Make "JSLint" conform
*** "Only install once"
* v1.0.4 (2006-01-06)
** Support TiddlyWiki 2.0
* v1.0.3 (2005-12-22)
** Features: 
*** Write output to a file supports multi-byte environments (Thanks to Bram Chen) 
*** Provide API to access the forEachTiddler functionality directly through JavaScript (see getTiddlers and performMacro)
** Enhancements:
*** Improved error messages on InternetExplorer.
* v1.0.2 (2005-12-10)
** Features: 
*** context object also holds reference to store (TiddlyWiki)
** Fixed Bugs: 
*** ForEachTiddler 1.0.1 has broken support on win32 Opera 8.51 (Thanks to BrunoSabin for reporting)
* v1.0.1 (2005-12-08)
** Features: 
*** Access tiddlers stored in separated TiddlyWikis through the "in" option. I.e. you are no longer limited to only work on the "current TiddlyWiki".
*** Write output to an external file using the "toFile" option of the "write" action. With this option you may write your customized tiddler exports.
*** Use the "script" section to define "helper" JavaScript functions etc. to be used in the various JavaScript expressions (whereClause, sortClause, action arguments,...).
*** Access and store context information for the current forEachTiddler invocation (through the build-in "context" object) .
*** Improved script evaluation (for where/sort clause and write scripts).
* v1.0.0 (2005-11-20)
** initial version

!Code
***/
//{{{

	
//============================================================================
//============================================================================
//		   ForEachTiddlerPlugin
//============================================================================
//============================================================================

// Only install once
if (!version.extensions.ForEachTiddlerPlugin) {

if (!window.abego) window.abego = {};

version.extensions.ForEachTiddlerPlugin = {
	major: 1, minor: 0, revision: 8, 
	date: new Date(2007,3,12), 
	source: "http://tiddlywiki.abego-software.de/#ForEachTiddlerPlugin",
	licence: "[[BSD open source license (abego Software)|http://www.abego-software.de/legal/apl-v10.html]]",
	copyright: "Copyright (c) abego Software GmbH, 2005-2007 (www.abego-software.de)"
};

// For backward compatibility with TW 1.2.x
//
if (!TiddlyWiki.prototype.forEachTiddler) {
	TiddlyWiki.prototype.forEachTiddler = function(callback) {
		for(var t in this.tiddlers) {
			callback.call(this,t,this.tiddlers[t]);
		}
	};
}

//============================================================================
// forEachTiddler Macro
//============================================================================

version.extensions.forEachTiddler = {
	major: 1, minor: 0, revision: 8, date: new Date(2007,3,12), provider: "http://tiddlywiki.abego-software.de"};

// ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Configurations and constants 
// ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

config.macros.forEachTiddler = {
	 // Standard Properties
	 label: "forEachTiddler",
	 prompt: "Perform actions on a (sorted) selection of tiddlers",

	 // actions
	 actions: {
		 addToList: {},
		 write: {}
	 }
};

// ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
//  The forEachTiddler Macro Handler 
// ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

config.macros.forEachTiddler.getContainingTiddler = function(e) {
	while(e && !hasClass(e,"tiddler"))
		e = e.parentNode;
	var title = e ? e.getAttribute("tiddler") : null; 
	return title ? store.getTiddler(title) : null;
};

config.macros.forEachTiddler.handler = function(place,macroName,params,wikifier,paramString,tiddler) {
	// config.macros.forEachTiddler.traceMacroCall(place,macroName,params,wikifier,paramString,tiddler);

	if (!tiddler) tiddler = config.macros.forEachTiddler.getContainingTiddler(place);
	// --- Parsing ------------------------------------------

	var i = 0; // index running over the params
	// Parse the "in" clause
	var tiddlyWikiPath = undefined;
	if ((i < params.length) && params[i] == "in") {
		i++;
		if (i >= params.length) {
			this.handleError(place, "TiddlyWiki path expected behind 'in'.");
			return;
		}
		tiddlyWikiPath = this.paramEncode((i < params.length) ? params[i] : "");
		i++;
	}

	// Parse the where clause
	var whereClause ="true";
	if ((i < params.length) && params[i] == "where") {
		i++;
		whereClause = this.paramEncode((i < params.length) ? params[i] : "");
		i++;
	}

	// Parse the sort stuff
	var sortClause = null;
	var sortAscending = true; 
	if ((i < params.length) && params[i] == "sortBy") {
		i++;
		if (i >= params.length) {
			this.handleError(place, "sortClause missing behind 'sortBy'.");
			return;
		}
		sortClause = this.paramEncode(params[i]);
		i++;

		if ((i < params.length) && (params[i] == "ascending" || params[i] == "descending")) {
			 sortAscending = params[i] == "ascending";
			 i++;
		}
	}

	// Parse the script
	var scriptText = null;
	if ((i < params.length) && params[i] == "script") {
		i++;
		scriptText = this.paramEncode((i < params.length) ? params[i] : "");
		i++;
	}

	// Parse the action. 
	// When we are already at the end use the default action
	var actionName = "addToList";
	if (i < params.length) {
	   if (!config.macros.forEachTiddler.actions[params[i]]) {
			this.handleError(place, "Unknown action '"+params[i]+"'.");
			return;
		} else {
			actionName = params[i]; 
			i++;
		}
	} 
	
	// Get the action parameter
	// (the parsing is done inside the individual action implementation.)
	var actionParameter = params.slice(i);


	// --- Processing ------------------------------------------
	try {
		this.performMacro({
				place: place, 
				inTiddler: tiddler,
				whereClause: whereClause, 
				sortClause: sortClause, 
				sortAscending: sortAscending, 
				actionName: actionName, 
				actionParameter: actionParameter, 
				scriptText: scriptText, 
				tiddlyWikiPath: tiddlyWikiPath});

	} catch (e) {
		this.handleError(place, e);
	}
};

// Returns an object with properties "tiddlers" and "context".
// tiddlers holds the (sorted) tiddlers selected by the parameter,
// context the context of the execution of the macro.
//
// The action is not yet performed.
//
// @parameter see performMacro
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.getTiddlersAndContext = function(parameter) {

	var context = config.macros.forEachTiddler.createContext(parameter.place, parameter.whereClause, parameter.sortClause, parameter.sortAscending, parameter.actionName, parameter.actionParameter, parameter.scriptText, parameter.tiddlyWikiPath, parameter.inTiddler);

	var tiddlyWiki = parameter.tiddlyWikiPath ? this.loadTiddlyWiki(parameter.tiddlyWikiPath) : store;
	context["tiddlyWiki"] = tiddlyWiki;
	
	// Get the tiddlers, as defined by the whereClause
	var tiddlers = this.findTiddlers(parameter.whereClause, context, tiddlyWiki);
	context["tiddlers"] = tiddlers;

	// Sort the tiddlers, when sorting is required.
	if (parameter.sortClause) {
		this.sortTiddlers(tiddlers, parameter.sortClause, parameter.sortAscending, context);
	}

	return {tiddlers: tiddlers, context: context};
};

// Returns the (sorted) tiddlers selected by the parameter.
//
// The action is not yet performed.
//
// @parameter see performMacro
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.getTiddlers = function(parameter) {
	return this.getTiddlersAndContext(parameter).tiddlers;
};

// Performs the macros with the given parameter.
//
// @param parameter holds the parameter of the macro as separate properties.
//				  The following properties are supported:
//
//						place
//						whereClause
//						sortClause
//						sortAscending
//						actionName
//						actionParameter
//						scriptText
//						tiddlyWikiPath
//
//					All properties are optional. 
//					For most actions the place property must be defined.
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.performMacro = function(parameter) {
	var tiddlersAndContext = this.getTiddlersAndContext(parameter);

	// Perform the action
	var actionName = parameter.actionName ? parameter.actionName : "addToList";
	var action = config.macros.forEachTiddler.actions[actionName];
	if (!action) {
		this.handleError(parameter.place, "Unknown action '"+actionName+"'.");
		return;
	}

	var actionHandler = action.handler;
	actionHandler(parameter.place, tiddlersAndContext.tiddlers, parameter.actionParameter, tiddlersAndContext.context);
};

// ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
//  The actions 
// ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

// Internal.
//
// --- The addToList Action -----------------------------------------------
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.actions.addToList.handler = function(place, tiddlers, parameter, context) {
	// Parse the parameter
	var p = 0;

	// Check for extra parameters
	if (parameter.length > p) {
		config.macros.forEachTiddler.createExtraParameterErrorElement(place, "addToList", parameter, p);
		return;
	}

	// Perform the action.
	var list = document.createElement("ul");
	place.appendChild(list);
	for (var i = 0; i < tiddlers.length; i++) {
		var tiddler = tiddlers[i];
		var listItem = document.createElement("li");
		list.appendChild(listItem);
		createTiddlyLink(listItem, tiddler.title, true);
	}
};

abego.parseNamedParameter = function(name, parameter, i) {
	var beginExpression = null;
	if ((i < parameter.length) && parameter[i] == name) {
		i++;
		if (i >= parameter.length) {
			throw "Missing text behind '%0'".format([name]);
		}
		
		return config.macros.forEachTiddler.paramEncode(parameter[i]);
	}
	return null;
}

// Internal.
//
// --- The write Action ---------------------------------------------------
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.actions.write.handler = function(place, tiddlers, parameter, context) {
	// Parse the parameter
	var p = 0;
	if (p >= parameter.length) {
		this.handleError(place, "Missing expression behind 'write'.");
		return;
	}

	var textExpression = config.macros.forEachTiddler.paramEncode(parameter[p]);
	p++;

	// Parse the "begin" option
	var beginExpression = abego.parseNamedParameter("begin", parameter, p);
	if (beginExpression !== null) 
		p += 2;
	var endExpression = abego.parseNamedParameter("end", parameter, p);
	if (endExpression !== null) 
		p += 2;
	var noneExpression = abego.parseNamedParameter("none", parameter, p);
	if (noneExpression !== null) 
		p += 2;

	// Parse the "toFile" option
	var filename = null;
	var lineSeparator = undefined;
	if ((p < parameter.length) && parameter[p] == "toFile") {
		p++;
		if (p >= parameter.length) {
			this.handleError(place, "Filename expected behind 'toFile' of 'write' action.");
			return;
		}
		
		filename = config.macros.forEachTiddler.getLocalPath(config.macros.forEachTiddler.paramEncode(parameter[p]));
		p++;
		if ((p < parameter.length) && parameter[p] == "withLineSeparator") {
			p++;
			if (p >= parameter.length) {
				this.handleError(place, "Line separator text expected behind 'withLineSeparator' of 'write' action.");
				return;
			}
			lineSeparator = config.macros.forEachTiddler.paramEncode(parameter[p]);
			p++;
		}
	}
	
	// Check for extra parameters
	if (parameter.length > p) {
		config.macros.forEachTiddler.createExtraParameterErrorElement(place, "write", parameter, p);
		return;
	}

	// Perform the action.
	var func = config.macros.forEachTiddler.getEvalTiddlerFunction(textExpression, context);
	var count = tiddlers.length;
	var text = "";
	if (count > 0 && beginExpression)
		text += config.macros.forEachTiddler.getEvalTiddlerFunction(beginExpression, context)(undefined, context, count, undefined);
	
	for (var i = 0; i < count; i++) {
		var tiddler = tiddlers[i];
		text += func(tiddler, context, count, i);
	}
	
	if (count > 0 && endExpression)
		text += config.macros.forEachTiddler.getEvalTiddlerFunction(endExpression, context)(undefined, context, count, undefined);

	if (count == 0 && noneExpression) 
		text += config.macros.forEachTiddler.getEvalTiddlerFunction(noneExpression, context)(undefined, context, count, undefined);
		

	if (filename) {
		if (lineSeparator !== undefined) {
			lineSeparator = lineSeparator.replace(/\\n/mg, "\n").replace(/\\r/mg, "\r");
			text = text.replace(/\n/mg,lineSeparator);
		}
		saveFile(filename, convertUnicodeToUTF8(text));
	} else {
		var wrapper = createTiddlyElement(place, "span");
		wikify(text, wrapper, null/* highlightRegExp */, context.inTiddler);
	}
};


// ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
//  Helpers
// ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

// Internal.
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.createContext = function(placeParam, whereClauseParam, sortClauseParam, sortAscendingParam, actionNameParam, actionParameterParam, scriptText, tiddlyWikiPathParam, inTiddlerParam) {
	return {
		place : placeParam, 
		whereClause : whereClauseParam, 
		sortClause : sortClauseParam, 
		sortAscending : sortAscendingParam, 
		script : scriptText,
		actionName : actionNameParam, 
		actionParameter : actionParameterParam,
		tiddlyWikiPath : tiddlyWikiPathParam,
		inTiddler : inTiddlerParam, // the tiddler containing the <<forEachTiddler ...>> macro call.
		viewerTiddler : config.macros.forEachTiddler.getContainingTiddler(placeParam) // the tiddler showing the forEachTiddler result
	};
};

// Internal.
//
// Returns a TiddlyWiki with the tiddlers loaded from the TiddlyWiki of 
// the given path.
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.loadTiddlyWiki = function(path, idPrefix) {
	if (!idPrefix) {
		idPrefix = "store";
	}
	var lenPrefix = idPrefix.length;
	
	// Read the content of the given file
	var content = loadFile(this.getLocalPath(path));
	if(content === null) {
		throw "TiddlyWiki '"+path+"' not found.";
	}
	
	var tiddlyWiki = new TiddlyWiki();

	// Starting with TW 2.2 there is a helper function to import the tiddlers
	if (tiddlyWiki.importTiddlyWiki) {
		if (!tiddlyWiki.importTiddlyWiki(content))
			throw "File '"+path+"' is not a TiddlyWiki.";
		tiddlyWiki.dirty = false;
		return tiddlyWiki;
	}
	
	// The legacy code, for TW < 2.2
	
	// Locate the storeArea div's
	var posOpeningDiv = content.indexOf(startSaveArea);
	var posClosingDiv = content.lastIndexOf(endSaveArea);
	if((posOpeningDiv == -1) || (posClosingDiv == -1)) {
		throw "File '"+path+"' is not a TiddlyWiki.";
	}
	var storageText = content.substr(posOpeningDiv + startSaveArea.length, posClosingDiv);
	
	// Create a "div" element that contains the storage text
	var myStorageDiv = document.createElement("div");
	myStorageDiv.innerHTML = storageText;
	myStorageDiv.normalize();
	
	// Create all tiddlers in a new TiddlyWiki
	// (following code is modified copy of TiddlyWiki.prototype.loadFromDiv)
	var store = myStorageDiv.childNodes;
	for(var t = 0; t < store.length; t++) {
		var e = store[t];
		var title = null;
		if(e.getAttribute)
			title = e.getAttribute("tiddler");
		if(!title && e.id && e.id.substr(0,lenPrefix) == idPrefix)
			title = e.id.substr(lenPrefix);
		if(title && title !== "") {
			var tiddler = tiddlyWiki.createTiddler(title);
			tiddler.loadFromDiv(e,title);
		}
	}
	tiddlyWiki.dirty = false;

	return tiddlyWiki;
};


	
// Internal.
//
// Returns a function that has a function body returning the given javaScriptExpression.
// The function has the parameters:
// 
//	 (tiddler, context, count, index)
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.getEvalTiddlerFunction = function (javaScriptExpression, context) {
	var script = context["script"];
	var functionText = "var theFunction = function(tiddler, context, count, index) { return "+javaScriptExpression+"}";
	var fullText = (script ? script+";" : "")+functionText+";theFunction;";
	return eval(fullText);
};

// Internal.
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.findTiddlers = function(whereClause, context, tiddlyWiki) {
	var result = [];
	var func = config.macros.forEachTiddler.getEvalTiddlerFunction(whereClause, context);
	tiddlyWiki.forEachTiddler(function(title,tiddler) {
		if (func(tiddler, context, undefined, undefined)) {
			result.push(tiddler);
		}
	});
	return result;
};

// Internal.
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.createExtraParameterErrorElement = function(place, actionName, parameter, firstUnusedIndex) {
	var message = "Extra parameter behind '"+actionName+"':";
	for (var i = firstUnusedIndex; i < parameter.length; i++) {
		message += " "+parameter[i];
	}
	this.handleError(place, message);
};

// Internal.
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.sortAscending = function(tiddlerA, tiddlerB) {
	var result = 
		(tiddlerA.forEachTiddlerSortValue == tiddlerB.forEachTiddlerSortValue) 
			? 0
			: (tiddlerA.forEachTiddlerSortValue < tiddlerB.forEachTiddlerSortValue)
			   ? -1 
			   : +1; 
	return result;
};

// Internal.
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.sortDescending = function(tiddlerA, tiddlerB) {
	var result = 
		(tiddlerA.forEachTiddlerSortValue == tiddlerB.forEachTiddlerSortValue) 
			? 0
			: (tiddlerA.forEachTiddlerSortValue < tiddlerB.forEachTiddlerSortValue)
			   ? +1 
			   : -1; 
	return result;
};

// Internal.
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.sortTiddlers = function(tiddlers, sortClause, ascending, context) {
	// To avoid evaluating the sortClause whenever two items are compared 
	// we pre-calculate the sortValue for every item in the array and store it in a 
	// temporary property ("forEachTiddlerSortValue") of the tiddlers.
	var func = config.macros.forEachTiddler.getEvalTiddlerFunction(sortClause, context);
	var count = tiddlers.length;
	var i;
	for (i = 0; i < count; i++) {
		var tiddler = tiddlers[i];
		tiddler.forEachTiddlerSortValue = func(tiddler,context, undefined, undefined);
	}

	// Do the sorting
	tiddlers.sort(ascending ? this.sortAscending : this.sortDescending);

	// Delete the temporary property that holds the sortValue.	
	for (i = 0; i < tiddlers.length; i++) {
		delete tiddlers[i].forEachTiddlerSortValue;
	}
};


// Internal.
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.trace = function(message) {
	displayMessage(message);
};

// Internal.
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.traceMacroCall = function(place,macroName,params) {
	var message ="<<"+macroName;
	for (var i = 0; i < params.length; i++) {
		message += " "+params[i];
	}
	message += ">>";
	displayMessage(message);
};


// Internal.
//
// Creates an element that holds an error message
// 
config.macros.forEachTiddler.createErrorElement = function(place, exception) {
	var message = (exception.description) ? exception.description : exception.toString();
	return createTiddlyElement(place,"span",null,"forEachTiddlerError","<<forEachTiddler ...>>: "+message);
};

// Internal.
//
// @param place [may be null]
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.handleError = function(place, exception) {
	if (place) {
		this.createErrorElement(place, exception);
	} else {
		throw exception;
	}
};

// Internal.
//
// Encodes the given string.
//
// Replaces 
//	 "$))" to ">>"
//	 "$)" to ">"
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.paramEncode = function(s) {
	var reGTGT = new RegExp("\\$\\)\\)","mg");
	var reGT = new RegExp("\\$\\)","mg");
	return s.replace(reGTGT, ">>").replace(reGT, ">");
};

// Internal.
//
// Returns the given original path (that is a file path, starting with "file:")
// as a path to a local file, in the systems native file format.
//
// Location information in the originalPath (i.e. the "#" and stuff following)
// is stripped.
// 
config.macros.forEachTiddler.getLocalPath = function(originalPath) {
	// Remove any location part of the URL
	var hashPos = originalPath.indexOf("#");
	if(hashPos != -1)
		originalPath = originalPath.substr(0,hashPos);
	// Convert to a native file format assuming
	// "file:///x:/path/path/path..." - pc local file --> "x:\path\path\path..."
	// "file://///server/share/path/path/path..." - FireFox pc network file --> "\\server\share\path\path\path..."
	// "file:///path/path/path..." - mac/unix local file --> "/path/path/path..."
	// "file://server/share/path/path/path..." - pc network file --> "\\server\share\path\path\path..."
	var localPath;
	if(originalPath.charAt(9) == ":") // pc local file
		localPath = unescape(originalPath.substr(8)).replace(new RegExp("/","g"),"\\");
	else if(originalPath.indexOf("file://///") === 0) // FireFox pc network file
		localPath = "\\\\" + unescape(originalPath.substr(10)).replace(new RegExp("/","g"),"\\");
	else if(originalPath.indexOf("file:///") === 0) // mac/unix local file
		localPath = unescape(originalPath.substr(7));
	else if(originalPath.indexOf("file:/") === 0) // mac/unix local file
		localPath = unescape(originalPath.substr(5));
	else // pc network file
		localPath = "\\\\" + unescape(originalPath.substr(7)).replace(new RegExp("/","g"),"\\");	
	return localPath;
};

// ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Stylesheet Extensions (may be overridden by local StyleSheet)
// ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
//
setStylesheet(
	".forEachTiddlerError{color: #ffffff;background-color: #880000;}",
	"forEachTiddler");

//============================================================================
// End of forEachTiddler Macro
//============================================================================


//============================================================================
// String.startsWith Function
//============================================================================
//
// Returns true if the string starts with the given prefix, false otherwise.
//
version.extensions["String.startsWith"] = {major: 1, minor: 0, revision: 0, date: new Date(2005,11,20), provider: "http://tiddlywiki.abego-software.de"};
//
String.prototype.startsWith = function(prefix) {
	var n =  prefix.length;
	return (this.length >= n) && (this.slice(0, n) == prefix);
};



//============================================================================
// String.endsWith Function
//============================================================================
//
// Returns true if the string ends with the given suffix, false otherwise.
//
version.extensions["String.endsWith"] = {major: 1, minor: 0, revision: 0, date: new Date(2005,11,20), provider: "http://tiddlywiki.abego-software.de"};
//
String.prototype.endsWith = function(suffix) {
	var n = suffix.length;
	return (this.length >= n) && (this.right(n) == suffix);
};


//============================================================================
// String.contains Function
//============================================================================
//
// Returns true when the string contains the given substring, false otherwise.
//
version.extensions["String.contains"] = {major: 1, minor: 0, revision: 0, date: new Date(2005,11,20), provider: "http://tiddlywiki.abego-software.de"};
//
String.prototype.contains = function(substring) {
	return this.indexOf(substring) >= 0;
};

//============================================================================
// Array.indexOf Function
//============================================================================
//
// Returns the index of the first occurance of the given item in the array or 
// -1 when no such item exists.
//
// @param item [may be null]
//
version.extensions["Array.indexOf"] = {major: 1, minor: 0, revision: 0, date: new Date(2005,11,20), provider: "http://tiddlywiki.abego-software.de"};
//
Array.prototype.indexOf = function(item) {
	for (var i = 0; i < this.length; i++) {
		if (this[i] == item) {
			return i;
		}
	}
	return -1;
};

//============================================================================
// Array.contains Function
//============================================================================
//
// Returns true when the array contains the given item, otherwise false. 
//
// @param item [may be null]
//
version.extensions["Array.contains"] = {major: 1, minor: 0, revision: 0, date: new Date(2005,11,20), provider: "http://tiddlywiki.abego-software.de"};
//
Array.prototype.contains = function(item) {
	return (this.indexOf(item) >= 0);
};

//============================================================================
// Array.containsAny Function
//============================================================================
//
// Returns true when the array contains at least one of the elements 
// of the item. Otherwise (or when items contains no elements) false is returned.
//
version.extensions["Array.containsAny"] = {major: 1, minor: 0, revision: 0, date: new Date(2005,11,20), provider: "http://tiddlywiki.abego-software.de"};
//
Array.prototype.containsAny = function(items) {
	for(var i = 0; i < items.length; i++) {
		if (this.contains(items[i])) {
			return true;
		}
	}
	return false;
};


//============================================================================
// Array.containsAll Function
//============================================================================
//
// Returns true when the array contains all the items, otherwise false.
// 
// When items is null false is returned (even if the array contains a null).
//
// @param items [may be null] 
//
version.extensions["Array.containsAll"] = {major: 1, minor: 0, revision: 0, date: new Date(2005,11,20), provider: "http://tiddlywiki.abego-software.de"};
//
Array.prototype.containsAll = function(items) {
	for(var i = 0; i < items.length; i++) {
		if (!this.contains(items[i])) {
			return false;
		}
	}
	return true;
};


} // of "install only once"

// Used Globals (for JSLint) ==============
// ... DOM
/*global 	document */
// ... TiddlyWiki Core
/*global 	convertUnicodeToUTF8, createTiddlyElement, createTiddlyLink, 
			displayMessage, endSaveArea, hasClass, loadFile, saveFile, 
			startSaveArea, store, wikify */
//}}}


/***
!Licence and Copyright
Copyright (c) abego Software ~GmbH, 2005 ([[www.abego-software.de|http://www.abego-software.de]])

Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification,
are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:

Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this
list of conditions and the following disclaimer.

Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this
list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other
materials provided with the distribution.

Neither the name of abego Software nor the names of its contributors may be
used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without specific
prior written permission.

THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND ANY
EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES
OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT
SHALL THE COPYRIGHT OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT,
INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED
TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR
BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN
CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN
ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH
DAMAGE.
***/
The Fields Medals, often considered the most prestigious awards in mathematics, have been given to four men in diverse areas of research.

Awarded every four years, the medals went to Elon Lindenstrauss of Princeton, who is moving to Hebrew University next month; Ngo Bao Chau of the University of Paris-Sud in Orsay, who is moving to the University of Chicago; Stanislav Smirnov of the University of Geneva; and Cédric Villani of the Henri Poincaré Institute in Paris. The awards were announced at the International Congress of Mathematicians conference in Hyderabad, India.

Dr. Lindenstrauss, the first Israeli mathematician to receive a Fields, applied ergodic theory, a field developed to describe the motion of dynamical systems like billiards balls, to problems in number theory. He also showed how quantum mechanics could be mixed into chaos theory.

Dr. Ngo, the first Vietnamese mathematician to receive a Fields, proved a proposition, or fundamental lemma, that underlies a three-decade effort by mathematicians to link geometry and number theory.

Dr. Smirnov, who was born in Russia, provided a firm mathematical foundation to simple models used by physicists to describe magnetism or percolation of water through soil.

Dr. Villani, a Frenchman, looked at how order falls apart into disorder in systems like colliding gas molecules.

Named for the mathematician John Charles Fields, the medal is usually limited to researchers 40 and under.

Source: [[Four Awarded Mathematics’ Fields Medal - NYTimes.com|http://www.nytimes.com/2010/08/24/science/24field.html]]
<<tabs tabClass
Guide "" [[tabinstructions]]
Xaos_fractals "" [[Xaos Fractal images]]
Sterling_fractals "" [[Sterling Fractal images]]
>>
!!GCSE's

GCSE's are the final examinations taken by students to complete their Secondary school education and mark the end of Key Stage 4.  Once completed students be ideally placed to progress to A Levels, Vocational qualifications or enter employment.

!!!What subjects are studied?

There is a broad and exciting range of GCSE subjects to choose from. Some subjects at this level are compulsory and others optional, most Year 11 students take approximately 10 subjects (some of these are counted as double subjects like General Science).  

:Core subjects include: Mathematics, English, General Science and Computer Studies . 
:Optional subjects include: Accounting, Art, Biology, Business Studies, Chemistry, Economics, Expressive Arts, Geography, Languages, and Physics . 

!!!What is studied at GCSE level?

Depending on the subjects choose,lessons are taught in the classroom or laboratory.  In some cases students also take part in educational field trips. Students are expected to complete homework and independent or group research projects.  Regular testing is also a feature of most GCSE programmes.

!!!How are GCSE's assessed?

For each GCSE subject, a final grade from A* (highest) to G is awarded. GCSE result will depend on the outcome of one or more methods of assessment:

>*Exams that are externally marked and graded. 
>*Continuous assessment during your course, for example, coursework assignments and practical experiments.
>*The proportion of coursework to exams will depend on the subject.

!!!What do GCSE grades mean?

They are a measure of achievement based on the National Curriculum levels of England, Wales and Northern Ireland.  Some universities specify minimum grades in certain subjects as part of their entrance requirements.  Also, many employers will only consider your application if you have achieved specific grades in particular subjects (usually English Language, Mathematics and three other written subject at grade C or above).

!What else will be gain from studying ~GCSEs?

Studying such a broad range of subjects helps students to decide what they are really interested in. GCSE help develop: 

>*Ability to think critically 
>*Research and analysis skills 
>*Study techniques 
>*Team working ability
[[BBC GCSE Bitesize Revision - Maths|http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/maths/ ]]
[[Emaths GCSE Video tutorials|http://www.s203881376.websitehome.co.uk/tutorials.htm ]]
[[GCSE Attainment Tests|http://www.cimt.plymouth.ac.uk/interactive/mat/default.htm]]
[[GCSE Maths Past Papers|http://www.gcsemathspastpapers.com/gcse-maths-past-papers-questions.htm]]
[[GCSE maths revision|http://www.gcse.com/maths/index.htm GCSE.com revising ]]
[[Grade C GCSE Maths Topics|http://www.brain-cells.co.uk/bcells7/GradeC/GradeCindex.htm]]
[[Interactive GCSE, KS3 Maths|http://www.gallinagh.com/ ]]
[[Skoool Key Stage 4|http://lgfl.skoool.co.uk/keystage4.aspx?id=317 ]]
!!Key Skills
[[Key Skills Practice Tests|http://www.keyskills4u.com/tests/2007/html/ ]]
[[Key Stage 3 level 4-6 Online tests|http://www.netagency.co.uk/Flash/sats4_6_1.html ]]
[[Key Stage 3 level 5-7 Online tests|http://www.netagency.co.uk/Flash/sats5_7_1.html ]]
[[Move On - Key Skills|http://www.move-on.org.uk/index.asp ]]

''Update'' : Key Skills are changing again. Functional Maths is now in place, originally this was to be a compulsory element that had to be passed before a GCSE Maths grade was awarded. This was dropped and now it is an optional add-on.
Check my DownloadGuide for additional help and support using these resources.

<<tabs tabClass
Web_Pages "" [[GCSE_Web_Pages]]
Excel "" [[GCSE_Excel]]
Powerpoint "" [[GCSE_Powerpoint]]
Word "" [[GCSE_Word]]
>>
!!Scrapping coursework for the maths GCSE helped boys outperform girls for the first time in a decade

//Polly Curtis, education editor//
//guardian.co.uk, Thursday 27 August 2009 12.08 BST//

While the focus is on record A-grades, for many it is as much of an achievment to get a C, as at this inner-city school Link to this video

Boys have leapfrogged over girls in maths GCSE results, bagging more of the top grades for the first time since 1997 after the government scrapped coursework last year.

The remarkable two percentage point increase in the proportion of top grades awarded to boys for maths sparked a debate about whether girls and boys should be assessed differently after experts claimed that girls thrived in coursework tests while their male classmates did better at cramming for exams.

A 20-year trend of girls increasingly outperforming boys could begin to reverse next year because coursework is due to be scrapped for nearly all subjects following the move with maths this year. The decision to reduce coursework was made amid concerns of increasing plagiarism, but it now appears it will have a significant impact on the gender gap in education and could disadvantage girls.

The proportion of boys getting grades A* to C in maths GCSE rose from 55.8% to 57.6%, while the rate for girls stayed the same, at 56.8%. The number of girls getting an A* dipped slightly.

Source: [[GCSE results: Boys bag top grades in maths : Education : guardian.co.uk|http://www.guardian.co.uk/education/2009/aug/27/gcse-results-2009-maths-exams/print]]
|!Title|!Type|!Description|!Level|!Link|!Added|!Extra Notes|h
|Correlation 2|Interactive Excel Worksheet|A simpler puzzle where you have to guess the type of correlation|GCSE|[[Correlation 2|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/excel/correlation2.xls]]|13/02/05||
|Fractions|Interactive Excel Worksheet|Key Stage 3 and GCSE|Explore fractions and equivalent fractions |[[Fractions|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/excel/fractions.xls]]|13/02/05||
|Fractions 2|Interactive Excel Worksheet|Explore fraction, equivalent fractions and fraction arithmetic - Updated version of "Fractions" with some excellent additions written by Thanasis L Kontogiannis |GCSE |[[Fractions 2|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/excel/fractions2.xls]]|13/02/05 |Email [[Thanasis L Kontogiannis|mailto:thankont@yahoo.com]]|
|GCSE Active Worksheets 1|Interactive Excel Worksheet |a set of active worksheets that give you a different set of questions and answers every time |GCSE |[[GCSE Active Worksheets 1|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/excel/gcseactivews.xls]]|13/02/05||
|GCSE Active Worksheets 2 |Interactive Excel Worksheet|a set of active worksheets that give you a different set of questions and answers every time |GCSE |[[GCSE Active Worksheets 2|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/excel/gcseactivews2.xls]]|13/02/05||
|Linear Equations|Interactive Excel Worksheet|Explore the equation of a straight line and solve linear simultaneous equations both graphically and algebraically |GCSE |[[Linear Simultaneous Equations|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/excel/linearequations.xls]]|13/02/05||
|Trigonometry |Interactive Excel Worksheet  |Explore the trigonometric graphs of sine and cosine functions |GCSE and A level |[[Trigonometry|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/excel/trigonometry.xls]]|13/02/05 ||
|Transformations 1|Interactive Excel Worksheet |Interactive worksheet performs translation, reflection, rotation and enlargement |Key Stage 3 and GCSE |[[Transformations 1|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/excel/transformation1.xls]]|13/02/05 ||
|Transformations 2|Interactive Excel Worksheet |puzzle version of Transformations 1 |Key Stage 3 and GCSE |[[Transformations 2|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/excel/transformation1.xls]]|13/02/05||
|Trial and Improvement|Interactive Excel Worksheet |a very useful set of activities submitted by Peter Shaw |Key Stage 3 and GCSE |[[Trial and Improvement|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/excel/trialandimprovement.xls]]|13/02/05|Email [[Peter Shaw|mailto:petrshaw@yahoo.co.uk]]|
|Quadratics|Interactive Excel Worksheet |Quadratics Factorise and expand quadratics|Key Stage 3, GCSE and A level level |[[Quadratics|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/excel/quadratic.xls]] |13/02/05||
|Pie Charts|Interactive Excel Worksheet|Explore pie charts|Key Stage 3 and GCSE |[[Pie Charts|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/excel/pie%20charts.xls]]|12/01/07||
|!Title|!Type|!Description|!Level|!Link|!Added|!Extra Notes|h
|Directed numbers|Powerpoint lesson|Quick introduction to directed numbers |GCSE |[[Directed Numbers|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/powerpoint/DirectedNumbers.ppt]]|13/02/05||
|Factors and primes|Powerpoint lesson |An introduction to the terms factors and primes |GCSE |[[Factors and Primes|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/powerpoint/Factors.ppt]]|13/02/05||
|Finding prime numbers|Powerpoint lesson |A quick introduction to Primes an a method of finding them |GCSE |[[Finding Prime Numbers|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/powerpoint/Primes.ppt]]|13/02/05||
|Mean, mode and median|Powerpoint lesson  |An introduction to averages |GCSE |[[Mean Mode Median|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/powerpoint/Averages.ppt]] |13/02/05||
|Standard form|Powerpoint lesson|An introduction to the use of Standard Form notation|GCSE|[[Standard Form|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/powerpoint/StandardForm.ppt]]|13/02/05 ||
|Tower of Hanoi|Powerpoint lesson |Explore the famous puzzle in this excellent Powerpoint presentation submitted by Peter Shaw |GCSE |[[Tower of Hanoi|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/powerpoint/Hanoi.ppt]]|13/02/05|Email [[Peter Shaw|mailto:petrshaw@yahoo.co.uk]]|
|!Title|!Type|!Description|!Level|!Link|!Added|!Extra Notes|h
|Application of Number - Key Skills Practice Tests 1 |Online Test |LSDA Key Skills Online Practice Tests |Key Skills levels 1 to 3 |[[Key Skills Practice Test 1|http://www.keyskills4u.com/tests/2004/LSDA_engineA.swf]]|13/05/06 |This is a very useful Key Skills Practice Test program. It includes Communication, Application of Number and Information Technology Tests for levels 1 to 3. Created by the Learning and Skills Development Agency.|
|Application of Number - Key Skills Practice Tests 1 |Online Test  |City and Guilds practice tests |Key Skills level 2 |[[Key Skills Practice Test 2|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/whiteboard/aonlv.exe]] |13/05/06 |City and Guilds online practice test for Application of number at level 2.|
|!Title|!Type|!Description|!Level|!Link|!Added|!Extra Notes|h
|2July Worksheet Set 1|Word |Includes Fractions and Decimals, Ratios 1 and 2, Simultaneous Equations  |Key Stage 3 and GCSE |[[Worksheet set 1|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/word/gcseworksheet1.zip]]|13/02/05|64k - these unzip into Word files that produce double sided A4 landscape that fold into A5 size intermediate/foundation GCSE worksheets. @@These have been updated 23/04/10 - now includes corrected formatting and pdf versions.@@|
|2July Worksheet Set 2 |Word |Includes GCSE Rev 1 - Numbers, Rev 2 - Algebra, Rev 3 - Algebra 2, Rev 4 - Shape, Rev 5 - Data Handling, GCSE Practice A - set of 46 past paper questions, GCSE practice answers |GCSE |[[Worksheet set 2|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/word/gcseworksheet2.zip]]|13/02/05  |231k - these are GCSE intermediate practice papers and answers|
|2July Worksheet Set 3|Word |GCSE Homework Sheets including Numbers 1 Arithmetic, Numbers 2 Percentages, Numbers 3 Ratio's and Fractions, Statistics 1 Averages and Range |GCSE |[[Worksheet set 3|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/word/gcseworksheet3.zip]]|13/02/05 |51k - four basic homework sheets for intermediate GCSE|
|2July Worksheet Set 4 |Word |GCSE Worksheets including Number, Algebra, Function Machines, Algebraic Expression, Verbal Equations, Solving Equations, Basic Trigonometry, Correlation 1, Correlation |GCSE |[[Worksheet set 4|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/word/gcseworksheet4.zip]]|13/02/05 |84k - nine worksheets for intermediate GCSE|
|Edexcel Quickie Homeworks |Word |a collection of homework sheets provided by Edexcel for intermediate and foundation level GCSE Maths - with answer file |GCSE|[[Quickie Homeworks|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/word/gcsehwzip.zip]]|13/02/05 ||
|GCSE Evaluation Materials - Self Assessment Sheets |Word|A set of sheets that I have used to help students assess their progress in mathematics. It can also help as a statement bank for report writing.|GCSE |[[Self Assessment Sheets|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/word/mathassess.zip]]|13/02/05||
[[AS-A2 Resources|http://www.registart.co.uk/asa2.html]] 
[[A Level Maths Notes|http://www.freewebs.com/mikecook/]]
>[[Classic Mistake Maths Podcasts and Posters|http://www.calculatorsoftware.co.uk/classicmistake/gallery.htm ]] - a very nice set of posters linked to a podcast related to common mistakes students make in mathematics
[[eCalc - Online Scientific Calculator|http://www.ecalc.com/calculator/scientific/]] 
[[Edexcel AS and A Level ModularMathematics|http://www.pearsonschoolsandfecolleges.co.uk/FEAndVocational/Mathematics/ALevel/EdexcelModularMathematicsforASandALevel/FreeResources/FreeResources.aspx]] 
[[EMaths - Mathematics Schemes of Work|http://www.emaths.co.uk/ASchemes.htm]]
[[Flash Mathlets|http://www.math.uri.edu/~bkaskosz/flashmo/ ]]
[[Flexcel - Flexible Interactive Workbooks in Excel|http://www.maths-it.org.uk/Flexcel/Flexcel.php ]]
[[Free Exam Papers|http://www.freeexampapers.com/ ]]
[[FREE STUDY - engineering council|http://www.freestudy.co.uk/ ]]
>[[GeoGebra|http://www.geogebra.org/cms/]] - an excellent __free__ dynamic geometry package that can be downloaded and installed or run online as a Java application. As good as Autograph and Cabri Geometry. Only down side is that you will need time //playing// with it to understand how it all works as the documentation is not always that useful.
[[Holistic Numerical Methods Institute|http://numericalmethods.eng.usf.edu/index.html ]]
[[Interactive Mathematics|http://www.intmath.com/ ]]
[[Just the Maths by AJ Hobson|http://www.coventry.ac.uk/ec/jtm/ ]]
[[Kangaroo Maths|http://www.kangaroomaths.com/free_resources/ks5/index.html ]]
[[LiveMaths|http://www.livemaths,co.uk]]
>new site : [[Maths-Quiz|http://www.math-quiz.co.uk]]
[[Mathed Up|http://www.mathedup.co.uk/index.htm]] 
[[Mathematics support for Mathematics & Statistics students - mathcentre|http://www.mathcentre.ac.uk/students.php/mathematics/algebra/ ]]
[[Mathlets - Jonathan Rogness|http://www.math.umn.edu/~rogness/mathlets.shtml ]]
[[MathsCentre|http://www.mathcentre.ac.uk/ ]]
[[MathsNetAlevel|http://www.mathsnetalevel.com]]
[[MathTutor|http://www.mathtutor.ac.uk/ ]]
[[MIT OpenCourseWare OCW|http://ocw.mit.edu/OcwWeb/web/home/home/index.htm]] 
[[Mr Barton maths help and resources|http://www.mrbartonmaths.com/index.htm]] 
[[Past Papers and Mark Schemes|http://paperlinks.501megs.com/p13.htm]] 
[[QuickMath|http://www.quickmath.com/ ]]
[[Sam Davyson|http://sam.davyson.com/archive/box/]] 
;Recommended downloads - most of these are freeware and I have found them very useful and hopefully you will to. 
>2July is not resposible for the content of any of these links, please make sure you check all downoads before you install them, and update your virus checker regularly. I try and keep them up to date as much as possible but things do change from time to time.

|!Title|!Type|!Description|!Link|!Date Added|!Extra Notes|h
|Periodic Table|Chemistry|Nice, simple and easy to use program for Windows from Tim Helvey.|[[Periodic Table Program|http://www.simtel.net/product.php?url_fb_product_page=42115]] (freeware) |13/02/2005||
|Graph|Mathematics|Graph is a freeware program used to draw mathematical graphs in a coordinate system. Anyone who wants to draw graphs of functions will find this program useful.|[[Graph|http://padowan.dk/graph/]]|13/02/2005|Key Stage 3, GCSE and A level|
|Java Applets on Mathematics|Mathematics|Walter Fendt has a range of excellent Java applets that can be linked to or downloaded for use in class|[[Java Applets on Mathematics|http://www.walter-fendt.de/m14e/]]|13/02/2005|GCSE and A level|
|Tower of Hanoi|Mathematics |A Java based demonstration of the famous puzzle|[[Tower of Hanoi|http://www.2july.co.uk/towerhanoi.htm]] |13/02/2005|Key Stage 3, GCSE and A level|
|Efofex Software|Mathematics and Science |Software for mathematics and science. Includes many add ons to Word or Excel to help teachers and students produce worksheets and reports.|[[Efofex Software|http://www.efofex.com/]]|13/02/2005|Includes FX Draw 2 Publication Quality Graphics for Mathematics Teachers, FX Graph 2 A Comprehensive Student Graphing Package, FX Equation 2, FX Chem 2 Typing Chemical Equations, FX ~PhysEquate, FX Stat The Mathematics Teacher's Statistic Package|
|~RealCalc|Teaching|A new character recognition calculator from Swansea University. Works best on an interactive whiteboard.|[[RealCalc|http://www.cs.swan.ac.uk/calculators/resources/realcalc.zip]]|20/07/2005|The download is a zipped file containing the Java code, images and sound files required. To run the application, extract the files to a suitable location and click on ~RealCalc2.jar file. It takes some time getting use to, but you can train the calculator to recognise your handwriting.|
|Worksheet Factory|Teaching|Programs include Mathematics Worksheet Factory, Vocabulary Worksheet Factory, Word Search Factory, Map Worksheet Factory|[[Worksheet Factory|http://www.schoolhousetech.com/]] programs|13/02/2005|(many have free trial versions before very reasonable registration fees)|
|~ComPuta|Calculator|Freeware calculator from Kunle Adegoke - small, standalone calculator that does the usual arithmetic, but also differentiates and integrates, finds roots and much more|[[CumPuta|http://www.phy.uni-bayreuth.de/~btp344/computa/index.html]]|23/06/2006|Freeware - only 200k in size|
|~aMath|Mathematics|Word addin - a free mathematics editor, an alternative to ~MathType Equation Editor, for Word|[[aMath|http://www.amath.net/]]|23/06/2006||
|Statcrucher|Mathematics|This is a wonderful online statistics analysis package. You can add data directly or import it from Excel, then create charts and graphs to your hearts content !!! It is very simple to use and the results are very clearly presented - all results can be saved, printed or exported in a variety of forms.|[[Statcrucher|http://www.statcrucher.com/]]|14/07/07|You pay for a subscription ($5 for 6 month, $8 for 12 months)|
|~FreeRip|Audio|~FreeRip is a award winning, freeware application that can record digital audio tracks directly from audio compact discs to files on your hard drive (this process is known as "ripping").|[[FreeRip|http://www.mgshareware.com/frmmain.html]]|13/02/2005|Useful if you want to produce materials with audio links|
|~AM-Deadlinks|Browsing| detects dead links and duplicates in your Browser Bookmarks. If a Bookmark has become unavailable you can delete it from your Browser. ~AM-Deadlink checks Bookmarks from Internet Explorer, Opera and Netscape.|[[AM-Deadlinks|http://aignes.com/products.htm]]|13/02/2005||
|~Pop-up killer|Browsing|A very useful freeware way of stopping irritating pop up windows|[[Pop-Up Killer|http://www.panicware.com/]] |13/02/2005||
|Xenu|Browsing|Xenu's Link Sleuth (TM) checks Web sites for broken links. Link verification is done on "normal" links, images, frames, plug-ins, backgrounds, local image maps, style sheets, scripts and java applets. It displays an updated list of URLs which you can sort by different criteria. A report can be produced at any time.|[[Xenu Link Sleuth|http://home.snafu.de/tilman/xenulink.html]]|13/02/2005||
|602 Pro Office |Office|An excellent FREE office suite with MS Word and MS Excel compatible applications |[[602 Pro Office Suite|http://www.software602.com/products/pcs/download.html]]|13/02/2005|approx 17 Mb to download but if you have a second system or just need a good word processor or spreadsheet this is alternative to Microsoft Office.|
|~Anotes|Office |post-it notes for your pc desktop, freeware|[[Anotes|http://anotes.fr.st/]]|13/02/2005||
|~JDir Printer|Office|The JR Directory Printer Utility allows you to print a listing of every file contained within a directory and/or subdirectory(ies). |[[JDir Printer|http://www.spadixbd.com/freetools/jdirprint.htm]]|13/02/2005||
|JR Ruler|Office|have an accurate ruler on your screen, measure in pixels, picas, cm, inches, freeware|[[JR Ruler|http://www.spadixbd.com/freetools/jruler.htm]]|13/02/2005||
|Pdf995|Office|a fast, affordable way to create professional-quality documents in the popular PDF file format. Its easy-to-use interface allows you to create PDF files by simply selecting the "print" command from any application, creating documents which can be viewed on any computer with a PDF viewer.|[[Pdf995|http://www.pdf995.com/download.html]] |13/02/2005|Please note : read the set up instructions carefully so that the correct printer drivers are installed|
|Rename |Office|rename multiple files quickly, freeware|[[Rename|http://www.1-4a.com/rename/]] |13/02/2005||
|~ZipCentral |Office|A very useful and easy to use compression program|[[ZipCentral program|http://zipcentral.iscool.net/]] |13/02/2005||
|Java Applets on Physics|Physics|Walter Fendt has a range of excellent Java applets that can be linked to or downloaded for use in class|[[Java Applets on Physics|http://www.walter-fendt.de/ph14e/]]|13/02/2005|GCSE and A level|
|~CometDocs|Office|Free online file converter - over 50 different file types supported.|[[CometDocs|http://www.cometdocs.com/]]| 23/07/09|This runs fully online, no installation required. Registration is required but this remains a free service.|
|AVG Anti Virus Suite|Security|Free ~Anti-Virus Protection!|[[AVG Anti Virus|http://www.grisoft.com/]] |13/02/2005|AVG Free Edition. Download, install and use AVG ~Anti-Virus system to reliably protect your computer and data free of charge.|
[[Illuminations Geometric Solids|http://illuminations.nctm.org/ActivityDetail.aspx?ID=70]] 
!Graphs and Networks
!!Spanning Tree Problems - Animated Minimum Connector problem
<html>
<form name="minconnect" method="get">
<select onchange="location=document.minconnect.menud2.options[document.minconnect.menud2.selectedIndex].value;" name=menud2 value="GO"> 
<option selected>choose a topic</option>
<option value="http://www-b2.is.tokushima-u.ac.jp/~ikeda/suuri/dijkstra/Prim.shtml">Prim's algorithm</option>
<option value="http://www-b2.is.tokushima-u.ac.jp/~ikeda/suuri/kruskal/Kruskal.shtml">Krushkal's algorithm</option></select>
</form>
</html>
!!Shortest Paths in Networks
Animated Shortest path
<html>
<form name="shortest" method="get">
<select onchange="location=document.shortest.menud3.options[document.shortest.menud3.selectedIndex].value;" name=menud3 value="GO">
<option value="http://www-b2.is.tokushima-u.ac.jp/~ikeda/suuri/dijkstra/Dijkstra.shtml">Dijkstra's algorithm</option>
<option selected>choose a topic</option></select>
</form>
</html>
!Word notes

//Here are some notes on Graphs and Networks//
[[D1 Graphs and Networks|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/word/Decision%20Maths%201%20graphs%20and%20networks.doc]]
!Powerpoint presentations
//These have been written using MS Office 2007 but saved as Office 97-2003 presentations, hopefully all formatting will be ok, but these have not been fully tested on different systems yet.//

Prim's and Kruskal's Algorithms
>[[Minimum Spanning Tree|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/powerpoint/d1 minimum spanning trees.ppt]]
Dijkstra's Algorithm
>[[Shortest Path|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/powerpoint/d1 shortest path.ppt]]
Gresham Professors have given free public lectures in the City of London for over 400 years. [[Gresham College|http://www.gresham.ac.uk/default.asp]] is named after Sir Thomas Gresham, son of Sir Richard Gresham who was Lord Mayor in 1537/38.

In 2010-11, a number of the lectures will have a mathematical theme, including:

[[Maths with Pictures|https://www.ncetm.org.uk/cpd/21973]] (Professor John D Barrow FRS), 5 October 2010
[[Triangular Relationships|https://www.ncetm.org.uk/cpd/21954]] (Dr Patricia Fara), 4 November 2010
[[Continued Fractions|https://www.ncetm.org.uk/cpd/21955]] (Professor John D Barrow FRS), 16 November 2010
[[The Bounce of the Superball|https://www.ncetm.org.uk/cpd/21956]] (Professor John D Barrow FRS), 7 December 2010
[[The Uses of Irrationality: Paper Sizes and the Golden Ratio|https://www.ncetm.org.uk/cpd/21974]] (Professor John D Barrow FRS), 11 January 2011
[[Benford's Very Strange Law|https://www.ncetm.org.uk/cpd/21957]] (Professor John D Barrow FRS), 1 February 2011
[[The Importance of Proving Things|https://www.ncetm.org.uk/cpd/21975]] (Professor Mark Ronan), 10 March 2011
[[Science's First Mistake: Delusions In Pursuit of Theory?|https://www.ncetm.org.uk/cpd/21976]] (Professor Ian Angell), 11 May 2011
[[Undecidable and decidable problems in mathematics. A survey and some reflections, for the centenary of Turing's birth|https://www.ncetm.org.uk/cpd/21977]] (Joint LMS/Gresham Annual Lecture given by Professor Angus Macintyre), 17 May 2011.

More details from [[Gresham College|http://www.gresham.ac.uk/default.asp]] or on [[NCETM|https://www.ncetm.org.uk/news/26150]]
<html><div align="center"><iframe src="quoteofthemonth.htm" frameborder="0" width="100%" height="80"></iframe></div></html>
!!''2July'' is an ongoing project to provide a simple site aimed directly at UK teachers and students of mathematics.

It is primarily aimed at GCSE and A level material, however, it is hoped that links to other levels and other subject areas will be incorporated with time. 2July began in one form or another in 2002, and this is the latest version. More detailed explanations of GCSE's, AS/A2's and other UK qualifications can be found at [[FAQ]].

The site has is written using TiddlyWiki a simple but very flexible personal web notebook. 

TiddlyWiki is supposed to be a personal notebook very similar to a blog, and can be run of an USB drive. Offline the content can be edited and saved very simply, but once uploaded online this functionality does not work. Tags are used which should help find content of similar themes.

Contact 2July : please send suggestions and comments to <<linkTo email ? aliali at 2july dot co.uk>>
The original version is still online at [[2july Website|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/index2.htm]].
!!Latest News
<<forEachTiddler 
 where
 'tiddler.tags.contains("news")'
 sortBy
 'tiddler.created'
 descending
 write
 '(index < 3) ? "* [["+tiddler.title+"]]\n" : ""'
>>
!![[Bookmooch|htpp://www.bookmooch.com]] - Give away books / Get books in return
>Here are some books I'm offering at the moment ...
<html>
<iframe FRAMEBORDER=0 src="http://widgets.bookmooch.com/widget/en/html/inv_recent_cover/aliali/10/+/" width="300" height="200"></iframe>
<br><font face="arial" size=1"><a href="http://bookmooch.co.uk">Give away your books at BookMooch.com</a></font>
</html>
!!Daily Sudoku from [[Sudoku Assistant|www.sudoluassistant.com]]
|!Today's puzzle|!Yesterdays Puzzle|h
|<html><table><caption align="right" valign="bottom"><a href="http://www.sudokuassistant.com" title="sudoku assistant" target="_blank"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: sans-serif; FONT-SIZE: 8px">by the Sudoku Assisstant</span></a></caption><tr><td><iframe name="sudoku" frameborder="0" marginwidth="1" marginheight="1" width="100%" height="198" src="http://www.sudokuassistant.com/sw/linktous/linkcode.php?tdwidth=20&amp;tdheight=20&amp;tdfz=16&amp;offset=194&amp;show=0">We cannot display this<a href="http://www.sudokuassistant.com/sw" title="sudoku assistant" target="_blank">sudoku</a>, since your browser does not support this feature.</iframe></td></tr></table></html>|<html><table><caption align="right" valign="bottom"><a href="http://www.sudokuassistant.com" title="sudoku assistant" target="_blank"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: sans-serif; FONT-SIZE: 8px">by the Sudoku Assisstant</span></a></caption><tr><td><iframe name="sudoku" frameborder="0" marginwidth="1" marginheight="1" width="100%" height="198" src="http://www.sudokuassistant.com/sw/linktous/linkcode.php?tdwidth=20&amp;tdheight=20&amp;tdfz=16&amp;offset=193&amp;show=1">We cannot display this <a href="http://www.sudokuassistant.com/sw" title="sudoku assistant" target="_blank">sudoku</a>, since your browser does not support this feature.</iframe></td></tr></table></html>|
!!Excellent resources for students and teachers
>[[Circus Physics|http://www.pbs.org/opb/circus/classroom/circus-physics/]] - a lovely site with short video clips and lesson ideas using circus acts to demonstrate some basic Physics. Very useful for Mechanics classes. 
>[[Classic Mistake Maths Podcasts and Posters|http://www.calculatorsoftware.co.uk/classicmistake/gallery.htm ]] - a very nice set of posters linked to a podcast related to common mistakes students make in mathematics
>[[MathsBank|http://www.mathsbank.co.uk]] - MathsBank is a new site for A level students and teachers. Full of interactive exam questions for all modules for both AS and A2 Mathematics. Subscription charges are very reasonable and flexible, and there's even a chance to gain "karma points" for contributing questions
>[[MyMaths|http://www.mymaths.co.uk]] - excellent selection of resources for schools
>[[LiveMaths|http://www.livemaths.co.uk]] - video tuition covering GCSE, AS Level and A2 Level Mathematics
>[[MathsNetAlevel|http://www.mathsnetalevel.com]] - practice questions from all the modules at AS and A2 level Mathematics
!!Updates :
*Updated side menu layout and some new resources added 13/05/2010. Main menu was becoming crowded, so have redesigned the layout. Also have added some we [[TiddlyWiki Links|TiddlyLinks]] in the resources section for those interested in using TiddlyWiki.
*New [[A level resources]] added :

#[[Trigonometry v2|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/excel/trigonometryv2.xls]] - this worksheet explores the graphs of the three trig functions and their relationship to a unit circle.
#[[Partial Fractions|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/excel/C4_Partial_Fractions.xls]] - this worksheet allows you to practice your Partial Fraction skills. You are presented with three random fractions that you need to write as Partial Fractions.
#[[Binomial Series|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/excel/C4_Binomial_Series.xls]] - this worksheet allows you to practice 
##Binomial Series expansion up to the first 6 terms
##Binomial Series approximation of (1 + x)^^n^^ when x < 1

>#[[Distance Learning Courses|http://www.rdi.co.uk/]] - Distance learning degree is reachable for anyone who wishes to advance their academic qualification regardless of geographical factors.
>#[[Justin Craig|http://www.justincraig.ac.uk/]] offers GCSE and A Level (AS/A2) Revision Courses in all Major Subject - Revision Centres across the UK. [[Enquire|http://www.justincraig.ac.uk/]] about a Revision Course today!

#New Decision Maths 1 powerpoint resources added in [[Discrete Maths]]
----
@@2July Poll@@
<html>
<form method=post action="http://poll.pollcode.com/1yv9"><table border=0 width=150 bgcolor="EEEEEE" cellspacing=0 cellpadding=2 align="center"><tr><td colspan=2><font face="Verdana" size=1 color="000000"><b>What is the highest level of Maths you have studies?</b></font></td></tr><tr><td width=5><input type=radio name=answer value="1"></td><td><font face="Verdana" size=1 color="000000">GCSE Maths</font></td></tr><tr><td width=5><input type=radio name=answer value="2"></td><td><font face="Verdana" size=1 color="000000">A level</font></td></tr><tr><td width=5><input type=radio name=answer value="3"></td><td><font face="Verdana" size=1 color="000000">Degree</font></td></tr><tr><td width=5><input type=radio name=answer value="4"></td><td><font face="Verdana" size=-1 color="000000">Masters</font></td></tr><tr><td width=5><input type=radio name=answer value="5"></td><td><font face="Verdana" size=1 color="000000">Doctorate</font></td></tr><tr><td width=5><input type=radio name=answer value="6"></td><td><font face="Verdana" size=1 color="000000">None of these</font></td></tr><tr><td colspan=2><center><input type=submit value="Vote">&nbsp;&nbsp;<input type=submit name=view value="View"></center></td></tr><tr><td bgcolor="white" colspan=2 align=right><font face="Verdana" size=1 color="black">pollcode.com <a href=http://pollcode.com/><font color="navy">free polls</font></a></font></td></tr></table></form>
</html>
<html>
<object width="425" height="344"><param name="movie" value="http://www.youtube.com/v/P9dpTTpjymE&color1=0xb1b1b1&color2=0xcfcfcf&hl=en&feature=player_embedded&fs=1"></param><param name="allowFullScreen" value="true"></param><param name="allowScriptAccess" value="always"></param><embed src="http://www.youtube.com/v/P9dpTTpjymE&color1=0xb1b1b1&color2=0xcfcfcf&hl=en&feature=player_embedded&fs=1" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" allowfullscreen="true" allowScriptAccess="always" width="425" height="344"></embed></object>
</html>
The IB Diploma curriculum consists of six seperate subject groups __plus__ a core made up of three parts. 

!The Subject Groups are : 

!!!Group 1 - Language (Usually the home language)
!!!Group 2 - Second Language
!!!Group 3 - Individuals and Society (equivalent to humanities studjects)
!!!Group 4 - Experimental Sciences
!!!Group 5 - Maths or Computer Science (Maths is compulsory)
!!!Group 6 - The Arts (or another subect from Groups 2,3 or 4)

Normally three subjects are studied at higher level (requiring 240 teaching hours), and three subjects studied at standard level (requiring 150 teaching hours).

!The Core is made up of :

!!!Community, Action and Service
This includes extra curricular activities and voluntary work that the students engage in during the course.
!!!Extended Essay
This will be a 4,000 word essay on any topic of the students choice researched and compiled during the course.
!!!Theory of Knowledge
This explors the nature of knowledge across disciplines, encouraging an appreciation of other cultural perspectives.

All three parts of the core—extended essay, theory of knowledge and creativity, action, service—are compulsory and are central to the philosophy of the Diploma Programme.

!!Assessment

Students are assessed both internally and externally in ways that measure individual performance against stated objectives for each subject. 
 
__Internal assessment__
 
In most subjects some of the assessment is carried out internally by teachers, This could include oral exercises in language subjects, projects, student portfolios, class presentations, practical laboratory work, mathematical investigations and artistic performances.

__External assessment__

External exams make up the primary assessment for student achievement in each subject. These are taken in May of the second year with results being returned in July (as apposed to A levels taken in May/ June and results not out until mid August).

The Theory of Knowledge essay and Extended Essay tasks are also marked externally, however do not have to be completed in a formal supervised environment.
<<tabs tabClass
IB_Overview "" [[IB Overview]]
IB_Diploma "" [[IB Diploma Programme]]
IB_Mission_Statement "" [[IB Mission Statement]]
IB_Learner_Profile "" [[IB Learner Profile]]
>>
''Inquirers'' 
>They develop their natural curiosity. They acquire the skills necessary to conduct inquiry and research and show independence in learning. They actively enjoy learning and this love of learning will be sustained throughout their lives.
''Knowledgeable'' 
>They explore concepts, ideas and issues that have local and global significance. In so doing, they acquire in-depth knowledge and develop understanding across a broad and balanced range of disciplines.
''Thinkers'' 
>They exercise initiative in applying thinking skills critically and creatively to recognize and approach complex problems, and make reasoned, ethical decisions.
''Communicators'' 
>They understand and express ideas and information confidently and creatively in more than one language and in a variety of modes of communication. They work effectively and willingly in collaboration with others.
''Principled'' 
>They act with integrity and honesty, with a strong sense of fairness, justice and respect for the dignity of the individual, groups and communities. They take responsibility for their own actions and the consequences that accompany them.
''Open-minded'' 
>They understand and appreciate their own cultures and personal histories, and are open to the perspectives, values and traditions of other individuals and communities. They are accustomed to seeking and evaluating a range of points of view, and are willing to grow from the experience.
''Caring'' 
>They show empathy, compassion and respect towards the needs and feelings of others. They have a personal commitment to service, and act to make a positive difference to the lives of others and to the environment.
''Risk-takers'' 
>They approach unfamiliar situations and uncertainty with courage and forethought, and have the independence of spirit to explore new roles, ideas and strategies. They are brave and articulate in defending their beliefs.
''Balanced'' 
>They understand the importance of intellectual, physical and emotional balance to achieve personal well-being for themselves and others.
''Reflective'' 
>They give thoughtful consideration to their own learning and experience. They are able to assess and understand their strengths and limitations in order to support their learning and personal development.
//"The International Baccalaureate aims to develop inquiring, knowledgeable and caring young people who help to create a better and more peaceful world through intercultural understanding and respect.

To this end the organization works with schools, governments and international organizations to develop challenging programmes of international education and rigorous assessment.

These programmes encourage students across the world to become active, compassionate and lifelong learners who understand that other people, with their differences, can also be right."//
!__The International Baccalaureate__

The International Baccalaureate was founded at the International School of Geneva in 1968. It was aimed at providing a single international diploma programme preparing students for University. It operates as a non profit Swiss foundation.

There are now over 2700 schools in 127 countries offering one or more of the IB programmes on offer. Most IB schools are in the US with almost 1500 schools participating, followed by UK, Canada and Australia with approximately 100 to 300 schools in each. 

The programme is beginning to attract many more state schools in the UK as there is a growing disatisfaction with A level reforms.

!!The IB Programmes

There are three different stages available with the IB Programme. 

*Primary Years Programme - for students aged 3 - 12
>Equivalent to Key Stage 1 and 2 primary education in the UK
*Middle Year Programme - for students aged 11 - 16
>Equivalent to Key Stage 3 and 4, leading to GCSE's in secondary education in the UK
*[[IB Diploma Programme]] - for students aged 16 - 19
>Equivalent to A levels in the post 16 system in the UK

The IB programme was created not only to provide a quality education system, but had some clear and specific ethical issues it wanted to to promote. The [[IB Mission Statement]] underpins these aims and is key to the teaching, assessment and management of IB courses throughout all participating schools and colleges. The role of the learner is also a key concept with the IB. They have a list of fundamental attributes they wish an IB students to have or develop throught the programme, this is the [[IB Learner Profile]].

For further information try these links :
>[[IBO Diploma At A Glance|http://www.ibo%20diploma%20at%20a%20glance/]]
>[[IBmaths.com|http://ibmaths.com/]]
>[[Wiki IB Diploma Programme|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IB_Diploma_Programme]]
By Davide Castelvecchi

In the northern British Isles, the Celtic tribes known as the Picts coexisted for centuries alongside literate cultures such as the Romans, the Irish and the Anglo Saxons.

"They were the odd society out, in that they didn't leave any written record," says Rob Lee of the University of Exeter in England, save for some mysterious-looking sets of symbols on stones and jewels. In a paper published March 31 online in Proceedings of the Royal Society A, Lee and his coworkers now claim that the symbols are written language. Perhaps the Picts were not illiterate after all.

Pictish inscriptions—of which fewer than 500 remain, each not more than a few symbols long—have puzzled archaeologists for a century, Lee says. Could they be religious imagery? Tribe names? Or perhaps coats of arms? "Only in the last decade people have asked the question, 'Are they a language?'" he adds.

Lee's team attacked the problem with math. Written languages are distinguishable from random sequences of symbols because they contain some statistical predictability. The typical example is that, in the English language, a "q" is nearly certain to be followed by a "u"; and a "w" is much more likely to be followed by an "h" than, say, by an "s" or a "t".

This predictability is measured by the notion of Shannon entropy, one of the keystone concepts of information theory. (Shannon entropy explains for example why one can compress computer files into Zip archives, and puts a hard limit on how much they can be compressed.)

Lo and behold, the Shannon entropy of Pictish inscriptions turned out to be what one would expect from a written language, and not from other symbolic representations such as heraldry. "The paper shows that the Pictish symbols are characters of a lexicographic written language," Lee says, "as opposed to the most general form of writing, which includes things like the [non-verbal] instructions on your Ikea flat packs."

Source: [[Observations: Information-age math finds code in ancient Scottish symbols|http://www.scientificamerican.com/blog/post.cfm?id=information-age-math-finds-code-in-2010-03-31]]
!!Dylan Wiliam, IS THE GAP BETWEEN GCSE AND A-LEVEL BIGGER IN MATHEMATICS THAN FOR OTHER SUBJECTS? King's College London, BSRLM Proceedings: Vol 16 No 1 February 1996

//[[weblink|http://www.bsrlm.org.uk/IPs/ip16-1]]//

[R]esults of the candidates in the age 18 cohort who sat an examination in single Alevel mathematics in 1994. Of 22693 candidates who took A-level in 1994 after having got a grade A in GCSE mathematics in 1992, just over a quarter (26%) got a grade A at A-level, just under a quarter (23%) got a grade Band 18% were awarded grade C. Grades D and E were obtained by 13% and 8% respectively of those who got an A grade at GCSE. In total, therefore, 89% of those taking single Alevel mathematics after getting a grade A at GCSE gained some kind of a pass in mathematics at Alevel, although only two thirds (67%) got a 'good grade' (ie C or higher).

Candidates doing single A-level mathematics after getting only a 'B' in mathematics at GCSE fared much less well. Less than a third (32%) got a good grade and only just over two-thirds (68%) got any kind of pass at all. For those candidates attempting A-level mathematics after achieving only a grade 'c' at GCSE, the prognosis was even worse: one-sixth (17%) got a good grade and only one-half (51 %) got any grade at all. When one considers that many students with only a 'c' in mathematics are dissuaded or prevented from studying A-level mathematics at all … then grade 'C' in mathematics at GCSE can be seen to be a very poor predictor of success at A-level mathematics.

In a very real sense … the gap between GCSE and A-level is one grade bigger in mathematics than in English for candidates who attain Alevel grades D and E. Interpolating between the graphs in figure 1 suggests that for candidates who attain A-level grades Band C, the gap between GCSE and A-level is one-half of a grade bigger in mathematics than in English. When the comparison is between mathematics and all A-levels, the gap appears to be the same size at grade A, one grade bigger for mathematics at A-level grades B and C, and one-and-a-half grades bigger at A-level grades D and E.

The introduction of a reformed framework for A level qualifications in September 2000 … has been called ‘‘a disaster for mathematics’’ (Smith 2004, 8) as the newly structured qualification had relatively low pass rates compared to other subjects, with the effect that participation dropped by around 20% in the following two years. Only now are there signs of an upturn in participation following further changes being made to the A level curriculum in 2004.

Matthews and Pepper ask the question ‘‘who is doing A level mathematics?’’ and conclude that mathematics continues to be for a ‘‘clever core’’ (2007, 17). They contend that the only way to increase A level mathematics participation would be through a process of democratisation in which recruitment would be more inclusive.

As is well known, the uptake from C grade students is particularly low (2.7%)… A striking element here are the relative proportions which suggest that the higher the GCSE grade the more equal the proportion of male and female students completing some AS/2 mathematics. For example, 86.5% of A* boys complete some Advanced mathematics compared with 77.4% of A* girls, but for grade B students boys are more than twice as likely to complete some Advanced mathematics, 23.1% and 11.5% respectively. At grade A the ratio of these percentages (boys:girls) is approximately 3:2, dropping to around 10:9 for A* GCSE students.

The greatest effect upon one’s likelihood of participation in A level mathematics, beyond prior attainment at GCSE, is that of being female, although I have made it clear that relative prior attainment in mathematics compared with other GCSE subjects will impact the likelihood of completing some mathematics, and this might be different for girls and boys… The increasing body of research into girls’ attitudes to the study of mathematics (Fennema and Leder 1990; Jacobs and Bleeker 2004; Mendick 2005; Solomon 2007) suggests that the female participation issue emerges at a much younger age, and therefore it would need to be tackled well before these students approach the age at which they are expected to decide on advanced studies. 

[The] ethnicity of students has a significant impact upon their likelihood of completing some university-entrance level mathematics. My results suggest that some ethnic groups are nearly twice as likely to participate as their White British peers. Having said that, the size of each of these ethnic groups is typically smaller than 1% of the whole cohort, so the effect size is not as great as that for gender, which applies to half of the population.
Sesame Street classic - uses the term "hypotenuse" !!! 

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Here are a list of links to sites that I have used just for fun. They cover a range of subject and several have come in very useful in my teaching over the years.

<<tabs tabClass
Guide "" [[tabinstructions]]
Comic_Based_Links "" [[ComicBased]]
Maths_Based_Links "" [[MathsBased]]
Media_Based_Links "" [[MediaBased]]
Misc "" [[MiscBased]]
>>
!Language tools

[[askitonline |http://www.askitonline.com/]]
[[Clip Art Collection for FL instruction |http://tell.fll.purdue.edu/JapanProj//FLClipart/default.html]]
[[Dictionary.com |http://dictionary.reference.com/]]
[[Ethnologue, Languages of the World |http://www.ethnologue.com/home.asp]]
[[howjsay |http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=helminth&submit=Submit]]
[[Readability NIACE |http://www.niace.org.uk/development-research/readability]]
[[Text To Speech |http://text-to-speech.imtranslator.net/]]

!!Translators

[[AltaVista - Babel Fish Translation |http://uk.babelfish.yahoo.com/]]
[[Online Translator |http://text-to-speech.imtranslator.net/default.asp?loc=en&ldr=]]
Cows kill 20 Americans every year. But you can halve your chance of dying of a heart attack by drinking 8 bottles of wine a week. Laugh in the face of death at the new comedy show “Your Days Are Numbered – the maths of death”, either at the Edinburgh Fringe (Assembly@George Street, 5-30th August) or at the last London previews on July 27th (2.30 and 7.30 pm) at the Cockpit Theatre . 

Source: [[News from the world of maths|http://plus.maths.org/blog/]]
// //''Name:'' EmailLink
// //''Author:'' AlanHecht
// //''Type:'' [[Macro|Macros]]

// //''Description:'' email lets you list a "email" address without displaying it as readable text. This helps prevent your email address from being harvested by search engines and other web crawlers that read your page's contents. Using email, you type in the words "at" and "dot" instead of the punctuation symbols and add spaces inbetween words to disguise your address. However, email will display your email address in a web browser so that humans can read it. And email turns the address into a hyperlink that can be clicked to send you an instant email.

// //''Syntax:'' << {{{email yourname at yourdomain dot com "?optional parameters"}}} >>
// //Example 1: <<linkTo email ? sample at nowhere dot com>> (standard)
// //Example 2: <<linkTo email ? sample at nowhere dot com "?subject=Submission&body=Type your message here.">> (with optional parameters)

// //''Directions:'' <<tiddler MacroDirections>>

// //''Notes:'' You can use the optional email parameters to stipulate a subject or message body for the message. Most (not all) email clients will use this information to construct the email message.

// //''Related Links:'' none

// //''Revision History:''
// // v0.1.0 (20 July 2005): initial release
// // v0.1.1 (22 July 2005): renamed the macro from "mailto" to "email" to further thwart email harvesters.

// //''Code section:''
version.extensions.linkTo = {major: 0, minor: 1, revision: 1, date: new Date("Jul 22, 2005")};
config.macros.linkTo = {}
config.macros.linkTo.handler = function(place,macroName,params)
{
var temp = params.join(" ");
var data = temp.split("?");
var protocol =  data[0].replace(/\s/g,"");
if(protocol=='email') protocol = "ma"+"il"+"to:";
else if(protocol=='phone') protocol = "s"+"ip:";
var recipient = data[1];
recipient = recipient.replace(" at ","@").replace(" dot ",".");
recipient = recipient.replace(/\s/g,"");
var optional = data[2] ? "?" + data[2] : "";
var theLink = createExternalLink(place,protocol+recipient+optional);
theLink.appendChild(document.createTextNode(recipient))
}
Type the text for 'New Tiddler'
<<tagging Links>>
![[Home]]
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!2July Links
[[Education|EducationMenu]]
[[Links|LinksMenu]]
[[Resources|ResourcesMenu]]
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!Other Items
[[News Items]]
[[Videos]]
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@@2July Stores@@
[[Book Store|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/book.htm]]
[[Music Store|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/music.htm]]
@@You are Visitor :@@ 
<html><a title="free hit counters"
href="http://www.statcounter.com/" target="_blank"><img
src="http://c1.statcounter.com/256067/0//0/" alt="free hit
counters" border="0"></a></html>
Thomas Robert Malthus (February, 1766 – December 23, 1834) was an English demographer and political economist. He was best known for his pessimistic but highly influential views. Born with a silver spoon in his mouth, his father was a personal friend of the philosopher and skeptic David Hume and an acquaintance of Jean-Jacques Rousseau.

Malthus was home taught until his admission to Jesus College, Cambridge in 1784. He studied English, Latin and Greek. His principal subject was mathematics and he earned a masters degree in 1791 and was elected a fellow of Jesus College two years later. He was ordained and became an Anglican country parson in 1797. Malthus predicted population would outrun food supply, leading to a decrease in food per person in his essay The Principle of Population, published in 1798.

This prediction was based on the idea that population if unchecked increases at an “Exponential rate” (i.e. 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, etc.) whereas the food supply grows at an “Arithmetic” rate (i.e. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, etc.) Only misery, moral restraint and vice (which for Malthus included contraception) could check excessive population growth. Malthus favored “moral restraint” (including late marriage and sexual abstinence) as a check on population growth.

It is worth noting that Malthus proposed this only for the working and poor classes, but what this resulted in was the promotion of legislation which degenerated the conditions of the poor in England.

Source: [[Malthus and his population theory! : Newspost Online|http://www.newspostonline.com/entertainment/malthus-and-his-population-theory-2009102071962]]
Video 1

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Video 2

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<!--{{{-->
<link rel='alternate' type='application/rss+xml' title='RSS' href='index.xml' />
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<style type="text/css">#contentWrapper {display:none;}</style><div id="SplashScreen" style="border: 3px solid #ccc; display: block; text-align: center; width: 320px; margin: 100px auto; padding: 50px; color:#000; font-size: 28px; font-family:Tahoma; background-color:#eee;"><b>2July-Maths Website</b> is loading<blink> ...</blink><br><br><span style="font-size: 14px; color:red;">Requires Javascript.<br><br>Taking too long ? Click <a href="http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/index2.htm">here</a> for non-Java version.</span></div>
ScienceDaily (Sep. 28, 2009) — Scientists expect a new mathematical model of chronic wound healing could replace intuition with clear guidance on how to test treatment strategies in tackling a major public-health problem.

The Ohio State University researchers are the first to publish a mathematical model of an ischemic wound – a chronic wound that heals slowly or is in danger of never healing because it is fed by an inadequate blood supply. Ischemic wounds are a common complication of diabetes, high blood pressure, obesity and other conditions that can be characterized by poor vascular health.

An estimated 6.5 million people in the United States are affected by chronic wounds, and many are at risk of losing limbs or even dying as a result of the most severe of these wounds.

Modeling by mathematicians with expertise in biomedical processes has become increasingly important in the health sciences. The modeling reduces the need for guesswork and time-consuming animal testing traditionally required as researchers pursue prevention, diagnosis and treatment of complex diseases.

Source: [[Math Used As A Tool To Heal Toughest Of Wounds|http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/09/090921162144.htm]]
ScienceDaily (July 28, 2009) — Cancer researchers are turning to mathematical models to help answer important clinical questions, and a new paper in Cancer Research, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, illustrates how the technique may answer questions about Herceptin resistance.

Sofia Merajver, M.D., Ph.D., scientific director of the Breast Oncology Program at the University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center, and a senior editorial board member of Cancer Research, said the potential of mathematical oncology is nothing short of revolutionary. These landmark papers now have a potential forum in the Mathematical Oncology section of Cancer Research, whose wide readership will help the new results reach the clinic.

"Computational power has reached the point where models that could previously only be used to predict weather patterns, space travel or the effect of nuclear explosions can now be used in the clinic to estimate the impact of certain drugs," said Merajver.

Source: [[Mathematical Modeling Predicts Response To Herceptin|http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/07/090728132233.htm]]
A Princeton scientist with an interdisciplinary bent has taken two well-known problems in mathematics and reformulated them as a physics question, offering new tools to solve challenges relevant to a host of subjects ranging from improving data compression to detecting gravitational waves.

Salvatore Torquato, a professor of chemistry, has shown that two abstract puzzles in geometry -- known as the "covering" and "quantizer" problems -- can be recast as "ground state" problems in physics. Ground state problems relate to the study of molecule systems at their lowest levels of energy and have numerous applications across scientific disciplines. Torquato's conclusions are reported in a paper that was published online Nov. 10 by Physical Review E.

Source: [[Mathematical problems recast as physics questions, provide new tools for old quandaries|http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/11/101116161255.htm]]
ScienceDaily (Sep. 22, 2009) — Mathematicians from North America, Europe, Australia, and South America have resolved the first one trillion cases of an ancient mathematics problem. The advance was made possible by a clever technique for multiplying large numbers. The numbers involved are so enormous that if their digits were written out by hand they would stretch to the moon and back. The biggest challenge was that these numbers could not even fit into the main memory of the available computers, so the researchers had to make extensive use of the computers' hard drives.

According to Brian Conrey, Director of the American Institute of Mathematics, "Old problems like this may seem obscure, but they generate a lot of interesting and useful research as people develop new ways to attack them."

The problem, which was first posed more than a thousand years ago, concerns the areas of right-angled triangles. The surprisingly difficult problem is to determine which whole numbers can be the area of a right-angled triangle whose sides are whole numbers or fractions. The area of such a triangle is called a "congruent number." For example, the 3-4-5 right triangle which students see in geometry has area 1/2 × 3 × 4 = 6, so 6 is a congruent number. The smallest congruent number is 5, which is the area of the right triangle with sides 3/2, 20/3, and 41/6.

The first few congruent numbers are 5, 6, 7, 13, 14, 15, 20, and 21. Many congruent numbers were known prior to the new calculation. For example, every number in the sequence 5, 13, 21, 29, 37, ..., is a congruent number. But other similar looking sequences, like 3, 11, 19, 27, 35, ...., are more mysterious and each number has to be checked individually.

The calculation found 3,148,379,694 of these more mysterious congruent numbers up to a trillion.

Source: [[Mathematicians Solve 'Trillion Triangle' Problem|http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/09/090922095651.htm]]
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Mathematics of ancient carvings reveals lost language
by Kate Ravilious

Elaborate symbols and ornate depictions of animals carved in stone by an ancient Scottish people have given up their secret – to mathematics. Statistical analysis reveals that the shapes are a forgotten written language. The method could help interpret many other enigmatic scripts – and even analyse animal communication.

Conventional statistical methods for analysing scripts calculate the entropy or "orderedness" of the symbols: Shakespeare's prose would have a higher entropy than Egyptian hieroglyphs or Morse code, for example. However, such analysis only works for datasets large enough to capture most of the vocabulary in a language.

To overcome this problem, Rob Lee of the University of Exeter, UK, and colleagues have devised a way to compare small undeciphered scripts with known texts. The team compared symbols created by the Picts – a Scottish Iron Age society that flourished from the fourth to the ninth centuries AD – with over 400 known ancient and modern language texts.

Source: [[Mathematics of ancient carvings reveals lost language - life - 01 April 2010 - New Scientist|http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn18725-mathematics-of-ancient-carvings-reveals-lost-language.html]]
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!!!Web links
<<tabs tabClass
Guide "" [[tabinstructions]]
A_levels "" [[A level links]]
GCSEs "" [[GCSE links]]
Enrichment "" [[Enrichment links]]
Maths_tools "" [[Online Maths tools]]
Just_For_Fun "" [[MathsBased]]
>>
----
@@2July Poll:@@
<html>
<form method=post action="http://poll.pollcode.com/DW0"><table border=0 width=150 bgcolor="EEEEEE" cellspacing=0 cellpadding=2><tr><td colspan=2><font face="Verdana" size=1 color="000000"><b>Do you think Maths is ...</b></font></td></tr><tr><td width=5><input type=radio name=answer value="1"></td><td><font face="Verdana" size=1 color="000000">Cool</font></td></tr><tr><td width=5><input type=radio name=answer value="2"></td><td><font face="Verdana" size=-1 color="000000">Fun</font></td></tr><tr><td width=5><input type=radio name=answer value="3"></td><td><font face="Verdana" size=1 color="000000">Difficult</font></td></tr><tr><td width=5><input type=radio name=answer value="4"></td><td><font face="Verdana" size=1 color="000000">Boring</font></td></tr><tr><td colspan=2><center><input type=submit value="Vote">&nbsp;&nbsp;<input type=submit name=view value="View"></center></td></tr><tr><td bgcolor="white" colspan=2 align=right><font face="Verdana" size=1 color="black">pollcode.com <a href=http://pollcode.com/><font color="navy">free polls</font></a></font></td></tr></table></form>
</html>
Published in The TES on 10 September, 2010
By Richard Vaughan

A north London primary has become the first school to follow a controversial private sector trend by outsourcing maths teaching to India.

Ashmount Primary in Islington is running a pilot with half of its Year 6 pupils, providing them with one-to-one tuition using teachers based more than 4,000 miles away on the subcontinent - and now the school is planning to expand it to other pupils and year groups.

The service is being rolled out around the country and one leading education academic has predicted that it could become mainstream.

The idea of moving back-office work or customer service centres to the subcontinent is commonplace in the private sector.

But this is believed to be the first time it has happened in teaching. Each Ashmount pupil is given a headset and logs on to the website where they can interact with the tutor while following their instructions on the screen, which works in a similar way to an interactive whiteboard. It costs the school £12 per hour per pupil.

Ashmount assistant headteacher Rebecca Stacey said the service has made a significant difference to her pupils’ understanding of the subject.

“We were approached to do the pilot, and started very small with just a few pupils, but we quickly realised it was having a positive impact and so increased it so half of our Year 6 pupils are using it,” Ms Stacey said.

Dylan Wiliam, director of London University’s Institute of Education, said such a system could work for many more schools, but that there are also dangers.

“It will depend on how good their English is,” Mr Wiliam said. “They will also need to understand the cultural conventions of this country. For example, long division is laid out differently in different countries.

“Having said that, I am sure that this will become commonplace in time. If brain surgery can now be done remotely, why not maths teaching? As with many things in education, it’s not a silly idea, but as we have discovered in recent years, a lot of things that appeared to be good ideas at the time turn out to be useless, or worse,” he added.

The service, which is called BrightSpark Education, and was set up by UK- based entrepreneur Tom Hooper. His company employs more than 100 Indian- based tutors full time, all of which are maths graduates with teaching experience, and each tutor undergoes security checks.

Source: [[Maths teaching outsourced to India - News - TES Connect|http://www.tes.co.uk/article.aspx?storycode=6057597]]
[[John Conway's Game of Life |http://www.bitstorm.org/gameoflife/]] : this is one of many online versions of this fascinating game, more detailed information on this [[click here|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conway's_Game_of_Life]].
[[TiddlyLife]] a tiddlywiki version of Game of Life.
[[Mandelbrot Set - Java |http://richardbowles.tripod.com/java/mandel.htm]] 
[[Maths Cartoons |http://www.cartoonstock.com/directory/m/maths.asp]]
[[NEW MATH Comedy posters by Craig Damrauer |http://www.morenewmath.com/all/]] : these are great little posters use them just for fun or to stimulate a discussion.
[[NOVA scienceNOW PBS |http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/sciencenow/]]
[[Today In Science History |http://www.todayinsci.com/index.html]] : Nice site useful as a starter to lessons, includes biographies of scientists and mathematicians who were born or died on a given date. Also includes inventions and discoveries on particular dates.
[[World of Escher - Product Gallery |http://www.worldofescher.com/gallery/]]
[[Circus Physics|http://www.pbs.org/opb/circus/classroom/circus-physics/]]
[[Double Pendulum|http://brain.cc.kogakuin.ac.jp/~kanamaru/Chaos/e/DP/ ]]
[[FEEL THE FORCE - THINKQUEST|http://library.thinkquest.org/C005579/home.htm]]  
[[Free support for Physics for You|http://www.physics4u.co.uk/ ]]
[[Interactive Applets For Physics|http://www.ph.ed.ac.uk/cgi-bin/interactive/applets?sorted=0&topic_id=2]]   
[[Interactive Physics and Math with Java|http://www.physics.uoguelph.ca/applets/Intro_physics/kisalev/]] 
[[Interactives|http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0070524076/student_view0/interactives.html]] 
[[mathscentric|http://www.mathscentric.com/ ]]
[[Mechanics 1 eBook|http://www.teachnet-uk.org.uk/2007%20Projects/Maths-Mechanics_eBook_M1/home.htm]] 
[[Mechanics 2 eBook|http://www.teachnet-uk.org.uk/2006%20Projects/Maths-Mechanics_eBook_M2/Home.htm ]]
[[Mechanics Revision-M1 Quiz|http://www.mathsfiles.com/HotPotatoes/M1RevisionTest.htm]] 
[[SlideTopple|http://www.dje.me.uk/archive/progs/slideTopple.swf ]]
[[Teachnet UK Maths Projects|http://www.teachnet-uk.org.uk/projects-maths.htm ]]
[[The MovingMan project|http://www.mste.uiuc.edu/users/Murphy/MovingMan/MovingMan.html ]]
[[Angry Alien Productions |http://www.angryalien.com/]] : I love this site, it has short recreations of major films starring bunnies, watch and enjoy.
[[BBC Motion Gallery - Home Page |http://www.bbcmotiongallery.com/Customer/index.aspx]]
[[Beemp3.com |http://beemp3.com/]]
[[bubblegum machine |http://www.bubblegum-machine.com/]] : Check this blog regularly, it sometimes comes up with some gems of popular culture.
[[Movie and TV Wav Central |http://wavcentral.com/]]
[[RadioLovers.com - Old Time Radio Shows |http://www.radiolovers.com/]] : Great collection of old time radio shows, great for those long bus or train trips.
[[TVARK The online television museum Discover the history of tv presentation & graphic design |http://www.tv-ark.org.uk/]]
[[WavePad - Download |http://wavepad.en.softonic.com/]] : Free software for audio editting. Has a nice audio frequency display.]]
//These tools help convert files and documents between a vast range of different formats.//

!Media converters

[[Best Free Online PDF to Word Converter |http://www.freepdftoword.org/]]
[[Doc2PDF |http://www.pdfonline.com/convert-pdf/]]
[[Online viewer for PDF, PostScript and Word |http://view.samurajdata.se/]]
[[PDFescape |http://www.pdfescape.com/]]

[[Media Converter |http://www.mediaconverter.org/index.php?s=convert]]
[[media-convert |http://media-convert.com/convert/index.php]]
by Sharon Theimer for the Seattle Post website. 

Business and science groups in America are citing the space race of the Cold War as an example to try to persuade congress (The US version of our Parliament) to spend millions of dollars to recruit and train top class maths teachers.

The alliance argues that, just as a stronger focus on maths helped the United States top the Russian Sputnik launch by putting a man on the moon, the country needs to improve it's overall maths education to win an economic race with China and India and even a national security race against terrorism.

Groups are concerned that they will not be able to grab the attention of policymakers, without referencing something like Sputnik, which became both a national embarrassment and rallying point to accelerate U.S. maths and science efforts.

This lobbying also looks to public opinion, and it can be difficult to inspire much passion for maths even though Americans worry about jobs moving overseas, the number of college maths majors (Student's specialising in maths as a chosen subject) is declining and student maths scores lag behind those of many other countries.

Source: [[The Sum :: Count On's Online Maths Newspaper|http://www.counton.org/thesum/issue-18/issue-18-page-02.htm]]
!Mindmapping tools
[[bubbl.us Home |http://bubbl.us/edit.php]]
[[Online Mapping |http://www.cognitive-tools.com/Easy-Mapping/Online_Mapping_Software/online_mapping_software.html]]
[[Text 2 Mind Map |http://www.text2mindmap.com/]]
Check my DownloadGuide for additional help and support using these resources.

|!Title|!Type|!Description|!Level|!Link|!Added|!Extra Notes|h
|Biorhythms|Interactive Excel Worksheet|a simple program that calculates the biorhythms of a person given their date of birth and a starting date to investigate. An interesting use of the sine curve |General|[[Biorhythms|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/excel/biorhythms.xls]]|13/08/05||
|2July Dynamic Calendar |Interactive Excel Worksheet|A simple Excel worksheet to produce a calendar from any start date. Includes four layouts : Weekly Planner, Monthly Planner, Annual Planner or Annual Academic Planner|General|[[Calendar|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/excel/calendar.xls]]|13/08/05|Updated 21/04/06 : corrected error for annual June calendar Updated 06/08/07 : some minor formatting updates made|
|2July Dynamic Calendar - French / English version |Interactive Excel Worksheet|A simple Excel worksheet to produce a calendar from any start date. Includes four layouts : Weekly Planner, Monthly Planner, Annual Planner or Annual Academic Planner. This version allows users to translate the calenders between French and English|General|[[Calendar fr en version|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/excel/calendar_fr_en.xls]]|13/08/05|New : 5/05/10|
|2July Ovulation Predictor|Interactive Excel Worksheet|A series of worksheets developed to help couples plan for pregnancy. The sheets include an ovulation predictor, a Basal Body temperature record and a biorhythm calculator. This is not intended for use as an alternative to contraception, and no guarantees are made for its effectiveness.|General|[[Ovulation|http://www.2july-maths.co.uk/excel/ovulation.xls]]|13/02/05||
!The Audience Club
[[The Audience Club|http://www.theaudienceclub.com]] provides "free" tickets to a range of theatre and concert performances. These usually are to fill unsold seats and most are fringe productions but some high profile shows do get listed. There is a membership fee of £25 for a year for "Key Workers" and this entitles you to book two tickets for £2 each for any shows listed.
!~SeeSaw
[[SeeSaw|http://www.seesaw.com/]] is an online tv service showing BBC, Channel4 and Five programmes online. Even better, it has an extensive archive of some classic tv programmes.
!Wordle
[[Wordle|http://www.wordle.net/]] is a simple site that allows you to produce attractive word cloud designs for websites or as posters for displays.
!Triptico
[[Triptico|http://www.triptico.co.uk/]] is an interesting website full on online tools that you could use in class - mainly for primary schools but still interesting.
!Miscellaneous tools
[[Labination Dance Writer |http://www-staff.it.uts.edu.au/~don/pubs/led.html]] : A free labination dance notation program, it even animates your choreographed masterpiece.
[[Zoho Online Office Tools |http://www.zoho.com/]]
[[SimpleSite |http://www.simplesite.com/default.aspx]]
[[typeonline |http://www.typeonline.co.uk/]] : Touch typing tutor
[[Wordle |http://www.wordle.net/]] : Lovely word cloud poster maker 
Herbert Wilf, Penn’s Thomas A. Scott Emeritus Professor of Mathematics, and Warren Ewens, emeritus professor of biology, say their model directly challenges the long-standing contention among some doubters that evolution couldn't have happened because the small changes in species outlined by the theory simply would have taken too much time to be completed.

Their works shows that, under a very reasonable model of mutations and natural selection, the time required to evolve a very complex organism is vastly smaller than might be presumed. As a result, the idea that evolution would require "too much time" to be true is proved false.

Wilf and Ewens’ model is described in the paper "There's Plenty of Time for Evolution," which will appear in an upcoming issue of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Source: [[New mathematics research proves there's plenty of time for evolution|http://www.physorg.com/news/2010-12-mathematics-plenty-evolution.html]]
New Teaching Tools Aid Visually Impaired Students in Learning Math
ScienceDaily (Mar. 15, 2010)

Mastering mathematics can be daunting for many children, but researchers have found that children with visual impairments face disproportionate challenges learning math, and by the time they reach the college level, they are significantly under-represented in science, technology, mathematics and engineering disciplines.

Researchers at the University of Illinois are helping shape the futures of children with visual disabilities by creating innovative teaching tools that are expected to help the children learn mathematics more easily -- and perhaps multiply their career opportunities when they reach adulthood.

Nearly 5 million -- or one in 20 -- preschool-aged children and about 12.1 million children ages 6-17 have visual impairments, according to the Braille Institute.

Sheila Schneider, who is a senior and the first student who is legally blind to major in sculpture in the School of Art+Design within the College of Fine and Applied Arts at Illinois, is creating a series of small sculptures with mathematical equations imprinted on them in Braille that will be used to help children with visual impairments learn mathematics. The equations will be written in Nemeth Code, a form of Braille used for mathematical and scientific symbols.

Source: [[New teaching tools aid visually impaired students in learning math|http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/03/100315172218.htm]]
<<forEachTiddler 
 where
 'tiddler.tags.contains("news")'
 sortBy
 'tiddler.created'
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>>
Happy 150th birthday to the Riemann Hypothesis - the most famous unsolved problem in mathematics

It has been 150 years since the mathematician Bernhard Riemann published the conjecture which is now one of the most important unsolved problems in mathematics. The Riemann hypothesis encapsulates humankind's attempt to understand the mysteries of the primes: why there is no apparent pattern in the way the primes are distributed on the number line. The hypothesis is one of the Clay Mathematics Institute's Millennium Prize Problems — anyone who proves (or disproves) it will receive one million dollars.

Source: [[News from the world of maths|http://plus.maths.org/blog/]]
[[Complex numbers|http://scholar.hw.ac.uk/site/maths/topic1.asp?outline=no]] 
[[True-makers|http://www.fi.uu.nl/toepassingen/02022/toepassing_wisweb.en.html]] 
From the March 2010 Scientific American Magazine 
!Numbers Wars: School Battles Heat Up Again in the Traditional versus Reform-Math Debate

Weak student scores fuel the fight in mathematics education
By Linda Baker   

Over the past 20 years educators have fought over the best way to teach numbers to kids. Advocates of traditional math tout the practice of algorithms and teacher-centered learning, whereas reform-math proponents focus on underlying concepts and student inquiry. In the face of continued declining scores in the U.S., these so-called math wars have heated up recently with the circulation of petitions, the release of contested curriculum guidelines and, in one case, the filing of a lawsuit. At stake is the ability of American high school graduates to perform everyday math tasks and compete in a global economy.

The war began in 1989, when the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) released a set of standards that reshaped a generation of instruction. Instead of having students memorize formulas and compute problems such as adding fractions, advocates of reform math encouraged students to develop their own visual representations of math concepts and use calculators to solve numerical tasks.

In recent years a détente between the two camps formed, one that emphasized a middle ground. But if there is a truce, it is an uneasy one—new volleys from both sides continue to appear. Last October, for example, the NCTM released yet another document, “Focus in High School Mathematics: Reasoning and Sense Making,” which calls for a new approach revolving around applications. “Our 15-year-olds cannot use math to address simple real-life situations,” explains Gary Martin, a professor of math education at Auburn University and chair of the committee that wrote the document. Martin says that the new guidelines teach students how to “apply mathematical reasoning in a variety of contexts” instead of simply “carrying out procedures in a rote way.” He cited as an example a problem that asks students to compare the relative fuel-efficiency gains in two pairs of vehicles. The answer varies depending on whether one considers relative fuel efficiency or the total number of gallons of gasoline saved.

Although many educators have praised the report, critics say the document’s vague approach to mathematical analysis is reminiscent of the NCTM’s 1989 guidelines. “The sense is that all reasoning students attempt is valuable and should be celebrated,” says Stanford University mathematician Jim Milgram, who prefers a more traditional approach. “The trouble with this approach is that it is exactly status quo; we seem to have a mindset that, ‘Gee, Johnny reasoned’; it doesn’t matter that his actual reasoning is flawed.”

Source: [[Numbers Wars: School Battles Heat Up Again in the Traditional versus Reform-Math Debate: Scientific American|http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=numbers-war]]
[[Free Mathematics Tutorials, Problems and Worksheets|http://www.analyzemath.com/]]
[[Free Online Equation Editor|http://www.homeschoolmath.net/worksheets/equation_editor.php]]
[[Gallery of Mathematics|http://www.lboro.ac.uk/departments/ma/gallery/index.html ]]
!!Applets and Scripts
[[ActionScript 3 Tutorials|http://www.flashandmath.com/]]
[[Applets for math courses below calculus|http://www.slu.edu/classes/maymk/AppletsSLUBelowCalc.html]]
[[Area and perimeter|http://www.bgfl.org/bgfl/custom/resources_ftp/client_ftp/ks2/maths/perimeter_and_area/index.html ]]
[[Coordinate game|http://www.bgfl.org/bgfl/custom/resources_ftp/client_ftp/ks3/maths/coordinate_game/index.htm ]]
>[[GeoGebra|http://www.geogebra.org/cms/]] - an excellent __free dynamic__ geometry package that can be downloaded and installed or run online as a Java application. As good as Autograph and Cabri Geometry. Only down side is that you will need time //playing// with it to understand how it all works as the documentation is not always that useful.
[[Geometry Virtual Math Laboratories|http://www.math.tu-berlin.de/geometrie/lab/]]
[[Hermitech Laboratory - Formulator Tarsia|http://www.mmlsoft.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=9&Itemid=10 ]]
[[Homepage Walter Fendt|http://www.walter-fendt.de/ ]]
[[Illuminations Isometric Drawing Tool|http://illuminations.nctm.org/ActivityDetail.aspx?ID=125 ]]
[[Illuminations|http://illuminations.nctm.org/ ]]
[[Java Applet Library|http://www.edinformatics.com/il/il.htm ]]
[[Free Absorb Content on Yenka|http://www.yenka.com/freecontent/search.action?r=new]]
[[Manipula Java Maths|http://www.ies.co.jp/math/java/]]
[[Mathematics Animated|http://clem.mscd.edu/~talmanl/MathAnim.html]]
[[MathinSite - Applets|http://mathinsite.bmth.ac.uk/html/applets.html]]
[[Mathlets Java[TM] Applets for Math Explorations|http://cs.jsu.edu/mcis/faculty/leathrum/Mathlets/]]
[[MathSphere Free Graph Paper|http://www.mathsphere.co.uk/resources/MathSphereFreeGraphPaper.htm" ]]
[[Maths online|http://www.univie.ac.at/future.media/moe/onlinewerkzeuge.html]]
[[MERLOT - Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning|http://www.merlot.org/merlot/index.htm]]
[[MVT - Welcome|http://amath.colorado.edu/java/ ]]
[[WisWeb|http://www.fi.uu.nl/wisweb/en/ ]]
[[yTeach - Teaching resources and tools|http://www.yteach.co.uk/index.php/search/results/Mathematics,1,0,4195%3b6261,0,25,1,tn,1.html ]]
[[Open Directory - Science Math Education Java Applets|http://www.dmoz.org/Science/Math/Education/Java_Applets/]]
[[Skoool.co.uk  homepage|http://lgfl.skoool.co.uk/index.aspxStarter of The day|http://www.transum.org/software/SW/Starter_of_the_day/ ]]
[[The Standards Site Teaching Resources|http://nationalstrategies.standards.dcsf.gov.uk/primary/primaryframework/resourcelibrary?subject=A_ks2teachers ]]
[[Descarte Maths|http://descartes.cnice.mec.es/ingles/]]
[[National Library of Virtual Manipulatives|http://nlvm.usu.edu/en/nav/vlibrary.html]]
!!Graph Paper
[[Free Graph Paper|http://www.analyzemath.com/free_graph_paper/free_graph_paper.html]] 
[[Free Online Graph Paper - Grid Paper PDFs|http://incompetech.com/graphpaper/]]
[[Free Online Graph Paper - Polar|http://incompetech.com/graphpaper/polar/]]
[[Print Free Graph Paper|http://www.printfreegraphpaper.com/ ]]
!!Calculators
[[Activities Exchange by Texas Instruments|http://education.ti.com/educationportal/sites/UK/nonProductMulti/activities.html ]]
[[John Hanna's TI-nspire page|http://www.johnhanna.us/TI-nspire.htm]]
[[Online Scientific Calculator|http://www.flashkit.com/movies/launcher.php?url=http://www.flashkit.com/movies/Scripting/Maths/Ultimate-Gustavo_-9012/Ultimate-Gustavo_-9012.swf&width=445&height=594&bg=#FFFFFF]]
[[TI-Nspire Technology|http://education.ti.com/html/nspire_uk/index.html ]]
There a a whole host of free resources available to help create online material, convert from different file types or save flash videos before the links change and you can never find them again.

Check my DownloadGuide for additional help and support using these resources.


<<tabs tabClass
Guide "" [[tabinstructions]]
Blackboard_VLE "" [[BlackboardTools]]
Clocks "" [[Clocks]]
Collaboration "" [[CollaborationEmail]]
Language_Tools "" [[LanguageTools]]
Media_Converters "" [[MediaConverters]]
Maths_tools "" [[Online Maths tools]]
>>
<<tabs tabClass
Guide "" [[tabinstructions]]
Mindmapping "" [[MindmappingTools]]
Quizzes "" [[QuizMakers]]
Video "" [[VideoTools]]
Whiteboards "" [[WhiteboardTools]]
Worksheets "" [[WorksheetTools]]
Comic_Creators "" [[ComicBased]]
Misc "" [[MiscTools]]
>>
!!PM apology after Turing petition

Gordon Brown has said he is sorry for the "appalling" way World War II code-breaker Alan Turing was treated for being gay.

A petition on the No 10 website had called for a posthumous government apology to the computer pioneer.

In 1952 Turing was prosecuted for gross indecency after admitting a sexual relationship with a man. Two years later he killed himself.

The campaign was the idea of computer scientist John ~Graham-Cumming.

He was seeking an apology for the way the mathematician was treated after his conviction. He also wrote to the Queen to ask for Turing to be awarded a posthumous knighthood.

The campaign was backed by author Ian ~McEwan, scientist Richard Dawkins and gay-rights campaigner Peter Tatchell. The petition posted on the Downing Street website attracted thousands of signatures.

Mr Brown, writing in the Telegraph newspaper, said: "While Mr Turing was dealt with under the law of the time and we can't put the clock back, his treatment was of course utterly unfair and I am pleased to have the chance to say how deeply sorry I and we all are for what happened to him." 

Source: [[BBC NEWS : Technology : PM apology after Turing petition|http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/8249792.stm]]
!The History of Mathematics
A day combining lectures and workshops, dedicated to the rich historical and cultural roots of Mathematics. Emphasis will be given to the ways in which subject knowledge can be both enriched and broadened by delving into the history of mathematical discoveries. The day is being led by Snezana Lawrence, Lecturer in Mathematics Education, Bath Spa University, who will be joined by Professor Robin Wilson from the Department of Mathematics at the Open University, and Professor Marcus du Sautoy, Professor of Mathematics at the University of Oxford. Teachers attending the day will:

* Discover the underlying principles behind some of the most interesting and intriguing concepts from the history of mathematics
* Explore the practical ways in which teachers can enhance their lessons by using historical material
* Be given opportunities to build capacity to broaden their investigations into the history of mathematics

By the end of the day delegates should not only be enthused and have a better understanding of the ways in which they can enrich their teaching and learning of mathematics, but will also have a wealth of references and structures in place to create relevant and exciting schemes of work.

The day will be of particular interest to teachers at KS 3 and 4 and will cover teaching of all ability groups.

Source: [[PTI Course: The History of Mathematics : The Prince's Charities|http://princescharities.org/events-campaigns/2009/history-mathematics]]
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Pandora's 3D box

An amateur fractal programmer has discovered a new 3D version of the Mandelbrot set. Daniel White's new creation is based on similar mathematics as the original 2D Mandelbrot set, but its infinite intricacy extends into all three dimensions, revealing fractal worlds of amazing complexity and beauty at every level of magnification.
A 3D Mandelbrot set

The original 2D Mandelbrot set, named after Benoît Mandelbrot who discovered it in the 1970s, is arguably the most famous fractal of them all. Unlike ordinary 2D shapes, whose outlines typically become smooth when you look at them closely enough even if they look crinkly at first, the Mandelbrot set displays the same level of complexity at every scale. Zooming in on it is like going on a never-ending journey into hidden worlds. This infinite complexity, together with a certain level of self-similarity — you can find copies of the original Mandelbrot set appearing again and again on smaller and smaller scales as you zoom in — is what earns the Mandelbrot set the name fractal.

Several ways of creating 3D versions of the Mandelbrot set already exist, either by modifying the original 2D version, for example spinning it around an axis, or by translating the underlying mathematics into higher dimensions. But in most cases the "fractal-ness" of the resulting images does not extend into all three dimensions. You will see fractal structures when you look across the object along certain directions, but along other directions what you see is disappointingly smooth. White's new Mandelbulb, however, does appear to have genuine fractal features no matter which way you look at it, so in terms of fractal-ness, it's arguably got the biggest claim yet to being a true 3D analogue of the original Mandelbrot set.

Source: [[Pandora's 3D box|http://plus.maths.org/latestnews/sep-dec09/mandelbrot/]]
Paying the price

Consumers, financial institutions, and most importantly regulators did not understand the risks being taken in the financial markets. That was one of the main causes of the current financial crisis according to the Government white paper, Reforming the financial markets, released last week. It is clear to all players in the financial market that they need to make more accurate assessments of the risks they and others are taking. But will they be able to take the more scientific approach needed for a deeper understanding of financial risks, when they were so easily bewitched by unproven claims that you can turn financial lead into gold?

Rather than being seen as helping the market understand risk, mathematics has been identified as part of the problem, with Lord Turner's review of financial regulation blaming a "misplaced reliance on sophisticated mathematics". Is this justified? Chris Rogers from the University of Cambridge, sums up the view of many academics working in financial maths: "the problem is not that mathematics was used by the banking industry, the problem was that it was abused by the banking industry". However, mathematicians have been part of the industry, and so must have been part of the problem. But how much responsibility do they bear? 

Click below to read full article.

Source: [[Paying the price|http://plus.maths.org/latestnews/may-aug09/finance/index.html]]
/***
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|''Description:''|A photo gallery with optional subtitles|
|''Author:''|Paulo Soares|
|''Version:''|1.2.0|
|''Date:''|2010-02-03|
|''Source:''|http://www.math.ist.utl.pt/~psoares/addons.html|
|''Documentation:''|See the example|
|''License:''|[[Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 License|http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/]]|
|''~CoreVersion:''|2.5.0|
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Short video on Pi
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!What are Portable Applications?
These are programs that have been written to run from a portable USB pen drive or external hard drive. They don't usually need to be installed in the same way as normal programs and most are also open source and usually free.
!Are they of any use?
Yes. You can carry around a whole collection of all the tools and programs you normally need on a USB pen drive. This makes it so useful when you have to use several computers and don't always know what is available or installed.
!Where can I download these programs?
There are a range of sites that specialise on portable applications. You can see a list of these sites at PortableLinks.
!Personal Top 10 Portable Apps
A list is available in PortableAppsTop10
#[[VLC Media Player Portable|http://portableapps.com/apps/music_video/vlc_portable]] You can take your audio and video files along with everything you need to play them on the go. You can place it on your USB flash drive, iPod, portable hard drive or a CD and use it on any computer, without leaving any personal information behind.
#[[OpenOffice Portable|http://portableapps.com/apps/office/openoffice_portable]] is a complete office suite -- including a word processor, spreadsheet, presentation tool, drawing package and database -- packaged as a portable app, so you can take all your documents and everything you need to work with them wherever you go.
#[[DVDStyler|http://portableapps.com/apps/music_video/dvdstyler_portable]] is the popular DVD Styler program made portable so you can take your DVD creation tool settings with you. It has all the same great features as DVD Styler. Plus, it leaves no personal information behind on the machine you run it on, so you can take your favorite DVD menu creation program with you wherever you go.
#[[TiddlyWiki|http://www.tiddlywiki.com]] is a reasonably simple website that allows you to edit and organise ideas, notes and links in a quick efficient way. They whole website is saved as a single file and there are a range of Tiddly plugins to add fuctionality if wanted. For more on click on TiddlyWiki.
#[[AllSync'n'Go|http://www.allwaysync.com/ngo.html]] When your USB flash drive or portable hard drive is plugged into any Windows computer you get access to your synchronization application and personal data just as if you would be on your own PC. Sync the data by Allway Sync 'n' Go, then unplug the device to take your data with you.
#[[XMind|http://www.xmind.net/downloads/]] is the world's coolest brainstorming and mind mapping software and the best way to share your ideas - choose the portable version at the bottom of the page.
#[[Audacity Portable|http://portableapps.com/apps/music_video/audacity_portable]] is the popular Audacity audio editor packaged as a portable app, so you can take your audio files along with everything you need to edit and record on the go. You can place it on your USB flash drive, iPod, portable hard drive or a CD and use it on any computer, without leaving any personal information behind.
#[[1-4a Rename|http://www.1-4a.com/rename/]] - rename multiple files all at once. A simple, yet powerful renaming freeware. 
#[[Snippy|http://www.bhelpuri.net/Snippy/]] is a very simple screen capture tool. No installation is need - works with Windows up to XP version, but not with Vista or Windows 7. For latest versions of Windows, a similar tool called the "Snipping Tool" is already installed - found in Programs > Accessories > Snipping Tool.
#[[CCleaner|http://www.ccleaner.com/]] is a freeware system optimization, privacy and cleaning tool. It removes unused files from your system - allowing Windows to run faster and freeing up valuable hard disk space. It also cleans traces of your online activities such as your Internet history. Additionally it contains a fully featured registry cleaner. 

Just outside the Top 10 are some specialised software that some people will find very useful.
@@Best of the rest@@
#[[XMedia Recode|http://www.pendriveapps.com/media-converter-xmedia-recode/]] is a Portable Freeware Video and Audio Converter
#[[CamStudio Portable|http://www.lupopensuite.com/db/camstudioportable.htm]] is a video and audio screen capture tool
#[[Free PDF to Word|http://www.pendriveapps.com/free-pdf-to-word-converter/]] is a portable tool that can be used to convert PDF files to DOC (Microsoft Word Document) or RTF (Rich Text Format).
#[[WebCow|http://www.todayware.com/Hans-Krentel-C14590.html]] a download files from web pages in one go using filters to specify exactly what you want.
*[[PortableApps|http://portableapps.com]]
>An excellent site, full of the latest portable apps around, and has some interesting tools to help organise your USB pen drive applications for easy use. 
>With Portable Apps you can also download a whole suite of the most common programs used or needed.
*[[PenDriveApps|http://www.pendriveapps.com]]
>Another excellent site, worth searching as there are hints and tips for ways to make a range of software portable if needed.
*[[Portable Freeware|http://www.portablefreeware.com/]]
>Very good site, packed full of recommended software.
*[[Make Use Of ...|http://www.makeuseof.com/tag/portable-software-usb]]
>A general site but again has a good list of recommended programs for you to try.
*[[LiberKey|http://www.liberkey.com/en]]
>Liber Key produce a nice collection of programs configured into a range of suites to suit different USB pen drive sizes.
<html><embed id="VideoPlayback" src="http://video.google.com/googleplayer.swf?docid=4921374224753180414&amp;hl=en&amp;fs=true" style="WIDTH: 400px; HEIGHT: 326px" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" allowfullscreen="true" allowscriptaccess="always"> </embed>
</html>
!Quiz Makers
!!Surveys and Forms
[[Create free online surveys and forms |http://questionform.com/]]
[[Doculicious |http://www.doculicious.com/do/home]] :Easily create Forms and Documents to embed on your Websites
[[FeedbackFarm |http://www.feedbackfarm.com/]]
[[Free Online Survey & Questionnaire Creator |http://www.kwiksurveys.com/#]]
[[SurveyMonkey |http://www.surveymonkey.com/Home_Pricing.aspx]]
[[Web Poll - Free Web Polls - Online Polls |http://www.micropoll.com/]]
!!Quizzes and tests
[[classtools.net |http://classtools.net/]]: Create Free Flash Games and Tools for Education
[[Create online quizzes free quiz make |http://www.classmarker.com/]]
[[CSFSoftware |http://csfsoftware.co.uk/index.htm]]
[[Interactive tests |http://www.univie.ac.at/future.media/moe/tests.html]]
[[Quiz Templates |http://homepage.ntlworld.com/neil.williams50/free-resources2.htm]]
[[Quiz-zone |http://www.quiz-zone.co.uk/]]
[[readwritethink Student Materials Crossword Puzzles |http://www.readwritethink.org/student_mat/student_material.asp?id=68]]
[[readwritethink Student Materials |http://www.readwritethink.org/student_mat/index.asp]]
Type the text for 'New Tiddler'
<<tagging resources>>
Doubt and Uncertainty

<html><embed id="VideoPlayback" src="http://video.google.com/googleplayer.swf?docId=-3846497984030197366&hl=en-GB&playerMode=max" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" style="WIDTH: 400px; HEIGHT: 326px" /></embed /></html>

The Beauty of a Flower

<html><embed id="VideoPlayback" src="http://video.google.com/googleplayer.swf?docId=-6312273583241453120&hl=en-GB&playerMode=max" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" style="WIDTH: 400px; HEIGHT: 326px" /></embed /></html>
By Kate Loveys
Last updated at 9:29 AM on 15th March 2011

Schools desperate to improve their league table rankings make pupils sit their maths GCSEs too early, England’s largest exam board will warn today.

In the past three years the number of students taking the assessment aged just 15 or under has surged three-fold – to 10 per cent of all entrants.

Andrew Hall, head of exam board AQA, will tell delegates at a maths conference that, in many cases, pupils fail the exam or get a lower grade than they deserve because teachers are pushing them into taking it too early.

This in turn harms university prospects and makes youngsters believe, often wrongly, that they are hopeless at maths.

Mr Hall will tell the Advisory Committee on Mathematics Education annual conference: 'Some teachers tell us the pressures of league tables are forcing them to enter students early to try to "bank" a grade C, so they can then focus their teaching time and effort on those who will struggle to achieve a grade C.'

He will say that the trend 'may be having a negative impact on the take-up of mathematics at A-level'.

Mr Hall will also warn the culture of multiple re-sits 'kids' some pupils into thinking they are better at maths than they truly are.

For many years, private schools have opted for their top students to take subjects a year early so they can study them to a higher level.

However, in the state sector the trend is not confined to the brightest pupils, with many missing out on the highest grades.

Source: [[Schools 'forcing pupils into taking maths GCSE too early' : Mail Online|http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1366315/Schools-forcing-pupils-taking-maths-GCSE-early.html]]
!16 ‘Free’ Schools to open in September 2011
Once again Michael Gove’s hype has fallen far short of the mark. Having promised us hundreds of ‘Free’ schools, only 16 are scheduled to open in September 2011. Despite this setback he intends to press ahead, and we need to make sure that these proposals meet huge local opposition.

Anti Academies Alliance leaflet on ‘Free’ schools [[here|http://www.antiacademies.org.uk/Home/free-schools/thecaseagainstswedishstylefreeschools]], and information about the New Schools Network [[here|http://www.antiacademies.org.uk/Home/free-schools/whoarethenewschoolsnetworkandwhowilprofitfromrunningtheirschools]].

!First anti academies meetings
The first Anti Academies meetings of the new term have been very successful. 

In Deptford, London, 50 people came to hear about the campaign to prevent Tidemill school from becoming an Academy. The pressure from local campaigners has forced the Head teacher to agree to call a consultation meeting, and prevented the school from joining the 32 which opened as Academies this week. In Telford 50 people attended the meeting organised by Telford UNISON.
!Anti Academies poster
Download your copy [[here|http://www.antiacademies.org.uk/Home/anti-academies-poster]]
!Campaign materials
Make your campaign stall / meeting complete with Stickers / Balloons / Mugs / T Shirts[[here|http://www.antiacademies.org.uk/Home/merchandise]]
!News
Academies widen the gap between rich and poor
[[National Audit Office report shows that disadvantaged pupils lag further behind their peers in academies than in maintained schools|
http://www.tes.co.uk/article.aspx?storycode=6057600]]
 
[[Rapid expansion of Academies ‘risky’ warns watchdog|
http://www.guardian.co.uk/education/2010/sep/10/watchdog-academies-expansion-risky]]

[[Grim warning over future of schools|http://edition.pagesuite-professional.co.uk/Launch.aspx?refresh=A0n718Qgj16B&PBID=43BED876-4457-4A3D-99EF-B4B514A86198]] 
Article in the Waltham Forest Guardian, page 5 
 
You can follow the Anti Academies Alliance on
[[Facebook|http://www.facebook.com/?ref=home#!/pages/Anti-Academies-Alliance/178831804728?ref=ts]]
[[Twitter|http://twitter.com/antiacademies]]
<<search>><<closeAll>><<permaview>><<newTiddler>><<newJournal "DD MMM YYYY" "journal">><<saveChanges>><<slider chkSliderOptionsPanel OptionsPanel "options »" "Change TiddlyWiki advanced options">>
<<tabs txtMainTab "Timeline" "Timeline" TabTimeline "All" "All tiddlers" TabAll "Tags" "All tags" TabTags>>
A science writer who is being sued for libel by the British Chiropractic Association is to fight on after a preliminary judgment against him was overturned on appeal today.

Simon Singh was sued by the BCA after he wrote an article in the Guardian criticising the association for supporting members who claim that chiropractic treatments – which involve manipulation of the spine – can treat children's colic, sleeping and feeding problems, frequent ear infections, asthma and prolonged crying.

Singh described the treatments, for which he said there is not a lot of evidence, as "bogus" and criticised the BCA for "happily promoting" them.

In May, Mr Justice Eady in the high court ruled on the meaning of the words, saying they implied the association was being deliberately dishonest. Singh said that interpretation would make it difficult for him to defend himself at a full trial.

Singh was initially refused leave to appeal, but Eady's interpretation was rejected by Lord Justice Laws, who said Eady had risked swinging the balance of rights too far in favour of the right to reputation and against the right to free expression. Laws described Eady's judgment as "legally erroneous".

Many scientists and science writers have rallied to Singh's support, claiming that the freedom of scientific opinion is at stake.

Speaking after the judgment, Singh said this was the "best possible result".

"Simon Singh's battle in this libel case is not only a glaring example of how the law and its interpretation are stifling free expression, it shows how urgent the case for reform has become," said Jo Glanville, editor of Index on Censorship.

Source: [[Science writer Simon Singh wins ruling in chiropractic libel battle : Media : The Guardian|http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2009/oct/14/simon-singh-chiropractors-appeal]]
an online resource for teachers and students of mathematics
2July-Maths Website
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!!!Datasets
[[BBC NEWS  Special Reports Tony Blair  1997-2007|http://news.bbc.co.uk/nol/shared/spl/hi/uk_politics/07/blair_graphs/html/default.stm]] 
[[BBC NEWS Special Reports The Thatcher years|http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/in_depth/4447082.stm]] 
[[Geohive Global Statistics|http://www.xist.org/default1.aspx]] 
[[NationMaster - World Statistics|http://www.nationmaster.com/index.php]] 
[[Worldometers|http://www.worldometers.info/]] 
!!!Links
[[Correlation and Regression|http://espse.educ.psu.edu/edpsych/faculty/rhale/statistics/Chapters/Chapter13/Chap13.html ]]
[[How Are Viruses Spread|http://www.nctm.org/resources/content.aspx?id=8496 ]]
[[Investigating Statistics|http://espse.educ.psu.edu/edpsych/faculty/rhale/statistics/Investigating.htm]] 
[[Making Statistics Vital|http://www.making-statistics-vital.co.uk/]] 
[[Resource Against All Odds Inside Statistics|http://www.learner.org/resources/series65.html]] 
[[StatCrunch - Data analysis on the Web|http://www.statcrunch.com/]]
[[Statistics Glossary - presenting data|http://www.stats.gla.ac.uk/steps/glossary/presenting_data.html]] 
[[Stem-and-leaf Excel|http://cda.morris.umn.edu/~jongmink/STAT1601/stem-and-leaf.xls]] 
[[Virtual dice|http://www.bgfl.org/bgfl/custom/resources_ftp/client_ftp/ks1/maths/dice/index.htm]] 
[[Welcome to the SSC-Stat add-in for Excel|http://www.reading.ac.uk/ssc/software/sscstat/helpfile/ht_start.htm]]
These have been produced using [[Sterling2|http://soler7.com/Fractals/Sterling2.html]] - fractal freeware, no installation needed - works fine from a pen drive

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!!Mendick, Heather, 2008. Subtracting difference: troubling transitions from GCSE to AS-level mathematics. British Educational Research Journal, 34 (6). p. 711. ISSN 0141-1926 [Article]: Goldsmiths Research Online.

//[[weblink|http://eprints.gold.ac.uk/3136]]//

[T]he introduction of Curriculum 2000 has resulted in an unprecedented level of public attention and concern being focused on this matter. The high failure rates at ASlevel, the increased drop-out between AS and A2, the continued year-on-year drop in the numbers taking AS mathematics, and the knock-on effects on university takeup of mathematics and related degrees have led to talk of ‘AS chaos’ (Henry, 2002) and ‘maths in crisis’ (Henry, 2001) in the press and beyond.

Nationally, 70% of those entered for AS-level mathematics in 2001–02 obtained a pass grade of A–E. The numbers doing A-level mathematics were 8% lower in 2002, 17% in 2003, 18% in 2004, 14% in 2005 and 9% in 2006 than the numbers entered for AS in the previous years (Government Statistical Service, 2003, 2004; Department for Education and Skills [DfES], 2005, 2006, 2007). However, these
figures are difficult to read. Not all of these students will have ‘dropped out’ of mathematics. Some will never have intended to take the A2 course (students generally do four subjects in their first year and only three in their second year), some will be resitting their AS-level mathematics, and others will have left full-time education rather than just leaving mathematics.

National statistics suggest that the introduction of the AS-level has exacerbated the drop-out of women and girls from mathematics since they are disproportionately leaving mathematics in the new transition point between the AS and the A2 course. In 2001, female drop-out (as measured by the difference between the A2 entry figures for 2002 and the AS level figures for 2001) was 14% compared to 4% for males; in 2002, the figures were 23% and 13% respectively (Government Statistical Service, 2004, personal communication); in 2003, they were 23% and 14%; in 2004, 18% and 11%; and in 2005, 13% and 7% (Government Statistical Service, 2002, 2003, 2004, personal communication; DfES, 2005, 2006, 2007). This represents continuity with earlier patterns, for subject choice has long been gender polarised... Kitchen (1999) investigated the changing patterns of A-level mathematics entry, performance and transition to higher education (up to 1995). She highlights the missing girls who were qualified to do mathematics but chose not to continue beyond GCSE.

Organisational practices, such as setting and tiered entry, teachers’ classroom strategies, and images of mathematics and mathematicians within the media, carry the message that mathematics is not for everyone by reinforcing notions of ‘natural ability’… The ways in which the social divisions of socio-economic class and gender influence judgements about who is and who is not able to do mathematics, cannot be part of this debate because this would imply that ‘ability’ is socially constructed rather than natural. However, there is ample evidence for how very socially constructed mathematical ability is.

There are some less publicised voices calling for a more inclusive mathematics. For
example, Porkess (2001) has suggested making the assumed knowledge (covered in higher but not intermediate tier GCSE) testable at AS-level, cutting down the content, and changing the funding arrangements so as to encourage people to take more than a year to achieve AS mathematics. However, even here the argument that the content needs to be reduced is dangerously close to saying that the subject needs to be dumbed-down in order to be accessible to currently excluded groups. This is an argument that ultimately reinforces the same exclusivity it is trying to address since by constructing a need to adapt mathematics to make it suitable for specific groups of learners you simultaneously attach intellectual inferiority to their difference.

So to sum-up: we need to open mathematics up. It is not my aim here to spell out exactly what this would mean in practice but I end with some indicative ideas. Underlying them is an understanding that ‘policy is not exterior to inequalities, although it may change them; it is also affected, inflected and deflected by them’ (Ball, 1994, p. 17) In other words, policy and practice cannot, in any simple way, be used to solve problems of inequalities, for they are implicated in constructing those very inequalities. Assessment significantly structures how teachers teach. At the level of assessment policy the closing in of mathematics plays out in a variety of ways. For example, there are the direct moves to restrict access to AS-level mathematics to a smaller group of people by raising the entry requirements.

Noddings (1993), paying attention to the complexity of pedagogic power relations, writes usefully about the role of dialogue in politicising mathematics classrooms. Two of her strategies will give a sense of what this means. First is allowing students to work together: of course allowing this is not enough; students need to ‘learn to draw each other out, build on each other’s suggestions, and express their appreciation for good ideas and hard work’ (Noddings, 1993, p. 156); developing group working needs to be an explicit goal, at least as important as developing mathematical skills. Second Noddings (1993, pp. 156–157) suggests asking: ‘How shall we do this problem? and then … follow[ing] student  contributions to their logical conclusions.’ … There are many other useful approaches, including: allowing and encouraging students to talk about their emotional and relational responses to mathematics in the classroom and within assessed work (Povey, 1995) and encouraging students to develop an awareness of the unspoken assumptions in the questions they are doing and using these as the starting point for them to pose and solve new questions (Brown & Walter, 2005)… Such strategies will neither lead to everyone enjoying mathematics nor to everyone wanting to carry on with it. That’s not the point. However, by creating more spaces for people to construct their relationships with mathematics they might give people … a chance to explore what they can do with mathematics (rather than finding out what they can’t do).
<<tagging GCSEtoAlevel>>
Swine flu uncertainty

The media is buzzing with swine flu numbers. Latest government figures say that over 100,000 people in England came down with swine flu during the last week — that's almost twice the amount of the previous week, and up to five times higher than the seasonal flu figures recorded last winter. Twenty-six people in England have died of the disease.

But where do the numbers come from? Patients with swine flu symptoms are no longer tested in the lab or traced, so the published figures are estimates, rather than absolute numbers.

Source: [[News from the world of maths|http://plus.maths.org/blog/]]
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<<timeline "created">>
/***
|''Name:''|TagsTreePlugin|
|''Description:''|Displays tags hierachy as a tree of tagged tiddlers.<br>Can be used to create dynamic outline navigation.|
|''Version:''|1.0.1|
|''Date:''|Jan 04,2008|
|''Source:''|http://visualtw.ouvaton.org/VisualTW.html|
|''Author:''|Pascal Collin|
|''License:''|[[BSD open source license|License]]|
|''~CoreVersion:''|2.1.0|
|''Browser:''|Firefox 2.0; InternetExplorer 6.0|
!Demo
On the plugin [[homepage|http://visualtw.ouvaton.org/VisualTW.html]] :
*Try to tag some <<newTiddler>> with a tag displayed in the menu and edit MainMenu.
*Look at some tags like [[Plugins]] or [[menu]].
!Installation
#import the plugin,
#save and reload,
#optionally, edit TagsTreeStyleSheet.
! Usage
{{{<<tagsTree>>}}} macro accepts the following //optional// parameters.
|!#|!parameter|!description|!by default|
|1|{{{root}}}|Uses {{{root}}} tag as tree root|- In a //tiddler// content or template : uses the tiddler as root tag.<br>- In the //page// content or template (by ex MainMenu) : displays all untagged tags.|
|2|{{{excludeTag}}}|Excludes all such tagged tiddlers from the tree|Uses default excludeLists tag|
|3|{{{level}}}|Expands nodes until level {{{level}}}.<br>Value {{{0}}} hides expand/collapse buttons.|Nodes are collapsed on first level|
|4|{{{depth}}}|Hierachy depth|6 levels depth (H1 to H6 header styles)|
|5|{{{sortField}}}|Alternate sort field. By example : "index".|Sorts tags and tiddlers alphabetically (on their title)|
|6|{{{labelField}}}|Alertnate label field. By example : "label".|Displays tiddler's title|

!Useful addons
*[[FieldsEditorPlugin]] : //create//, //edit//, //view// and //delete// commands in toolbar <<toolbar fields>>.
*[[TaggerPlugin]] : Provides a drop down listing current tiddler tags, and allowing toggling of tags.
!Advanced Users
You can change the global defaults for TagsTreePlugin, like default {{{level}}} value or level styles, by editing or overriding the first config.macros.tagsTree attributes below.
!Code
***/
//{{{
config.macros.tagsTree = {
	expand : "+",
	collapse : "–",
	depth : 6,
	level : 1,
	sortField : "",	
	labelField : "",
	styles : ["h5","body","body","body","body","body"],
	trees : {}
}

config.macros.tagsTree.handler = function(place,macroName,params,wikifier,paramString,tiddler)
{
	var root = params[0] ? params[0] : (tiddler ? tiddler.title : null);
	var excludeTag = params[1] ? params[1] : "excludeTagsTree";
	var level = params[2] ? params[2] : config.macros.tagsTree.level;
	var depth = params[3] ? params[3] : config.macros.tagsTree.depth;
	var sortField = params[4] ? params[4] : config.macros.tagsTree.sortField;
	var labelField = params[5] ? params[5] : config.macros.tagsTree.labelField;
	var showButtons = (level>0);
	var id = config.macros.tagsTree.getId(place);
	if (config.macros.tagsTree.trees[id]==undefined) config.macros.tagsTree.trees[id]={};
	config.macros.tagsTree.createSubTree(place,id,root,excludeTag,[],level>0 ? level : 1,depth, sortField, labelField,showButtons);
}

config.macros.tagsTree.createSubTree = function(place, id, root, excludeTag, ancestors, level, depth, sortField, labelField,showButtons){
	var childNodes = root ? this.getChildNodes(root, ancestors) : this.getRootTags(excludeTag);
	var isOpen = (level>0) || (!showButtons);
	if (root && this.trees[id][root]!=undefined) isOpen = this.trees[id][root]; 
	if (root && ancestors.length) {
		var t = store.getTiddler(root);
		if (childNodes.length && depth>0) {
			var wrapper = createTiddlyElement(place , this.styles[Math.min(Math.max(ancestors.length,1),6)-1],null,"branch");
			if (showButtons) {
				b = createTiddlyButton(wrapper, isOpen ? config.macros.tagsTree.collapse : config.macros.tagsTree.expand, null, config.macros.tagsTree.onClick);
				b.setAttribute("treeId",id);
				b.setAttribute("tiddler",root);					
			}
			createTiddlyText(createTiddlyLink(wrapper, root),t&&labelField ? t.fields[labelField] ? t.fields[labelField] : root : root);
		}
		else 
			createTiddlyText(createTiddlyLink(place, root,false,"leaf"),t&&labelField ? t.fields[labelField] ? t.fields[labelField] : root : root);
	}
	if (childNodes.length && depth) {
		var d = createTiddlyElement(place,"div",null,"subtree");
		d.style.display= isOpen ? "block" : "none";
		if (sortField)
			childNodes.sort(function(a, b){
				var fa=a.fields[sortField];
				var fb=b.fields[sortField];
				return (fa==undefined && fb==undefined) ? a.title < b.title ? -1 : a.title > b.title ? 1 : 0 : (fa==undefined && fb!=undefined) ? 1 :(fa!=undefined && fb==undefined) ? -1 : fa < fb ? -1 : fa > fb ? 1 : 0;
			})
		for (var cpt=0; cpt<childNodes.length; cpt++)
			this.createSubTree(d, id, childNodes[cpt].title, excludeTag, ancestors.concat(root), level-1, depth-1, sortField, labelField, showButtons);	
	}	
}

config.macros.tagsTree.onClick = function(e){
	var id = this.getAttribute("treeId");
	var tiddler = this.getAttribute("tiddler");	
	var n = this.parentNode.nextSibling;
	var isOpen = n.style.display != "none";
	if(config.options.chkAnimate && anim && typeof Slider == "function")
		anim.startAnimating(new Slider(n,!isOpen,null,"none"));
	else
		n.style.display = isOpen ? "none" : "block";
	this.firstChild.nodeValue = isOpen ? config.macros.tagsTree.expand : config.macros.tagsTree.collapse;
	config.macros.tagsTree.trees[id][tiddler]=!isOpen;
	return false;
}

config.macros.tagsTree.getChildNodes = function(root ,ancestors){
	var childs = store.getTaggedTiddlers(root);
	var result = new Array();
	for (var cpt=0; cpt<childs.length; cpt++)
		if (childs[cpt].title!=root && ancestors.indexOf(childs[cpt].title)==-1) result.push(childs[cpt]);
	return result;
}

config.macros.tagsTree.getRootTags = function(excludeTag){
	var tags = store.getTags(excludeTag);
	tags.sort(function(a,b) {return a[0].toLowerCase() < b[0].toLowerCase() ? -1 : (a[0].toLowerCase() == b[0].toLowerCase() ? 0 : +1);});
	var result = new Array();
	for (var cpt=0; cpt<tags.length; cpt++) {
		var t = store.getTiddler(tags[cpt][0]);
		if (!t || t.tags.length==0) result.push(t ? t : {title:tags[cpt][0],fields:{}});
	}
	return result;
}

config.macros.tagsTree.getId = function(element){
	while (!element.id && element.parentNode) element=element.parentNode;
	return element.id ? element.id : "<html>";
}

config.shadowTiddlers.TagsTreeStyleSheet = "/*{{{*/\n";
config.shadowTiddlers.TagsTreeStyleSheet +=".leaf, .subtree {display:block}\n";
config.shadowTiddlers.TagsTreeStyleSheet +=".subtree {}\n";
config.shadowTiddlers.TagsTreeStyleSheet +="#mainMenu {text-align:left}\n";
config.shadowTiddlers.TagsTreeStyleSheet +=".branch .button {border:1px solid #DDD; color:#AAA;font-size:9px;padding:0 2px;margin-right:0.3em;vertical-align:middle;text-align:centre;}\n";
config.shadowTiddlers.TagsTreeStyleSheet +="/*}}}*/";

store.addNotification("TagsTreeStyleSheet", refreshStyles); 

config.shadowTiddlers.MainMenu="<<tagsTree>>"

config.shadowTiddlers.PageTemplate = config.shadowTiddlers.PageTemplate.replace(/id='mainMenu' refresh='content' /,"id='mainMenu' refresh='content' force='true' ")

//}}}
!Mathematics Taking Guesswork Out Of Plastic Surgery Tissue Transfer

~ScienceDaily (July 14, 2009) — Plastic surgeons are turning to mathematics to take the guesswork out of efforts to ensure that live tissue segments that are selected to restore damaged body parts will have enough blood and oxygen to survive the surgical transfer.

In the world’s first published mathematical model of tissue transfer, mathematicians have shown that they can use differential equations to determine which tissue segments selected for transfer from one part of the body to another location on the same body will receive the level of  oxygen required to sustain the tissue.

Source: [[Mathematics Taking Guesswork Out Of Plastic Surgery Tissue Transfer|http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/07/090714124851.htm]]
Primary school teachers in England are often scared of basic numeracy and should be required to study English and maths at A-level, a report suggests.

The Politeia study says the BEd degree should be abolished and future primary teachers required to study two subjects - other than education - at university.

The report says teachers in other parts of Europe are better qualified. The Department for Children, Schools and Families called the study "nonsense masquerading as serious comment".

At present, future primary school teachers need at least two A-levels and C grades in GCSE maths and English to get a place on a teaching degree or BEd courses.

But the report - Teachers Matter - by the right-of-centre think tank says these entry standards to the profession are too low.

!!!'Numeracy scares them'

Writing for the study, David Burghes, professor of maths teaching at the University of Plymouth, said: "One of the issues that bedevils our teaching profession, and particularly my subject of mathematics, is that of the inadequate subject knowledge of teachers."

Professor Burghes said trainee primary teachers who had only GCSE maths often had "little knowledge beyond basic numeracy" and in some cases "even basic numeracy scares them".

"The minimum entry level in mathematics to initial teacher training for primary is a Grade C at GCSE in mathematics," he said. "This qualification has often been taken some years before the training period (five or more years if they are taking a PGCE course) so that there may be little knowledge beyond basic numeracy about which a trainee feels confident."

He added: "The situation is vastly different in most countries around the world and particularly in Europe, where any potential teacher will have taken mathematics through to the equivalent of their sixth form - that is, up to age 18 or more ... This means that all primary teachers are, in comparison to England, highly qualified in mathematics."

!!!Unions angry

But Chris Keates, general secretary of the NASUWT teaching union said teachers were suitably qualified.

"Teachers are well qualified, it is a mainly graduate profession. There is absolutely no evidence that they haven't got the skills and knowledge to do the job." In international comparisons, the UK did very well, she added.

Nansi Ellis, head of education policy at the Association of Teachers and Lecturers said teaching was both an intellectual and a practical profession. "Being an academic genius does not mean you will be any good at teaching children," she said. 

"As well as knowing their subject, teachers need to understand the different ways children learn and develop ... Instead of hysterical reports of so-called under-educated teachers we should have a proper debate about the skills and knowledge teachers need to be good at teaching children."

!!!Retention

The report also raises concerns about retention levels in the profession, saying between 30% and 50% of primary and secondary school teachers in England leave the profession after five years. It describes teaching as a "controlled and centrally managed profession" and urges the next government to "abolish political and bureaucratic control of the classroom".

"In no other country is a teacher's day to day work circumscribed by government or bureaucrats," it says.

The report also criticises low final salaries and pay models which do not reward outstanding teaching or non- management responsibilities.

!!!'Nonsense'

The Department for Children, Schools and Families was critical of the report and its findings. "This report is simply nonsense masquerading as serious comment," a spokesman said. 

"Teaching is now the number one choice for graduates and the latest figures show that 95% of current primary school trainee teachers have a 2:2 degree or better ... Every single teacher needs to have a degree for postgraduate teaching training course and at least two A-levels or equivalent to get on the well-respected three year education degree - as well as GCSEs in English, maths and science."

Classroom teachers' pay had risen in real terms by 17%, head teachers by 32% and newly-qualified teachers by 13% over the past 12 years, he added. 

Source: [[BBC NEWS : Education : Teachers 'are scared of numeracy'|http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/education/8162803.stm]]
!Teaching and learning
[[A Session with John Rooney |http://www.grtleeds.co.uk/Culture/rooneyRecordings.html]]
[[Angles on learning and teaching at college, university and professional levels |http://www.doceo.co.uk/]]
[[Encyclopaedia of British History Education 1750-1950 |http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/education.htm]]
[[First and best in education |http://shop.firstandbest.co.uk/product_info.php?products_id=313&osCsid=400ba54f4b0cdd45304a7759ab5e0e07]]
[[Geoff Petty - Teaching Today |http://www.geoffpetty.com/]]
[[ted Ideas worth spreading |http://www.ted.com/]]
[[The early history of Education in England |http://www.know-britain.com/general/education_in_england_1.html]]
!Elearning
[[Elearnity Research - Main Navigator |http://www.elearnity.com/A555F3/research/research.nsf/MainMap?OpenPage]]
[[Filters in Schools |http://students.ed.uiuc.edu/jwbrown3/EPS%20313/filter/intro%20paper.htm]]
[[Netskills e-Learning Essentials |http://www.netskills.ac.uk/content/products/workshops/event/bbk-jan08-elrness-r1/index.html]]
[[The Ed Techie Some more VLE demise thoughts | http://nogoodreason.typepad.co.uk/no_good_reason/2007/11/some-more-vle-d.html ]]
!Critical thinking
[[Critical Thinking On The Web |http://austhink.com/critical/]]
[[Critical Thinking |http://www.criticalthinking.org.uk/]]
[[Philosophy Bites |http://nigelwarburton.typepad.com/philosophy_bites/]]
[[The Philosophy Podcast by Plato |http://www.learnoutloud.com/Podcast-Directory/Philosophy/Philosophers/The-Philosophy-Podcast/19669]]
!!David Wiffen, The Algebra Gap Between GCSE and A Level, PHILOSOPHY OF MATHEMATICS EDUCATION , JOURNAL 13 (2000)

//[[weblink|http://people.exeter.ac.uk/PErnest/pome13.htm]]//

The language of A Level mathematics is largely algebra, so it would be appropriate to investigate the origins of the algebra content in GCSE for comparisons to be made… Smith defines algebra as a "science of letters in place of numbers". Mason indicates the difficulties in algebra as "uninteresting, meaningless and so difficult to remedy" and Kuchemann supports this argument and states that "algebra is often meaningless to children"… Lee and Wheeler have written about algebra needing to be placed into context and used to solve problems, but state that "many of the problems can be trivial and so the algebra used can lose its cutting edge".

Since the central role of algebra has been reduced, another difficulty is highlighted … namely the loss of the link with arithmetic, as suggested by Booth and Hart. In the National Curriculum for instance, Hart states that "there is very little explicit mention of the structure of arithmetic and it is unlikely that readers will reconstruct it for themselves". Hart again states that "there is a delay in teaching algebra ... this topic is then underplayed".

The main influences of the National Curriculum on the algebra content in mathematics are summarised by Hart as follows. First was the suppression of symbolism. The way in which algebra was taught before the advert of the National Curriculum and modern maths was very much as a topic in its own right, as a powerful symbolic system, a language. The advent of modern maths meant some ambiguities arose and there was also a move away from the authoritarian approach, with some dilution of algebra… Second was the use of algebra largely as a means of expressing generality rather than for symbolism and in an attempt to make algebra more accessible.

Following the publication of the Cockcroft report in 1982 … papers would enable candidates to demonstrate what they know rather than what they do not know! In order to try to teach and test topics used in everyday life, new areas of mathematics such as statistics were introduced... GCSE mathematics was becoming more a subject meeting the needs of a variety of end-users, a minority wishing to take A Level and those needing GCSE merely as a qualification in itself, perhaps before taking other A Level subjects or before entry into a particular career…. It is also pointed out by SCAA that few questions on present GCSE papers demand the use of multi-step procedures... [t]his may well be a disadvantage for those students wishing to go on to take A Level mathematics, where multi-step problems are more prevalent.

Bearing in mind the algebraic rigour of much of the mathematics required at A Level, there does appear to be both a lack of depth and a scarcity of algebraic manipulation at GCSE reflected in these two papers. There does also appear to be a good deal of misconception regarding algebraic graphical work which continues into A Level… There is therefore an apparent gap in the algebra content between GCSE and A Level, due in some part to syllabus changes at 16+ over the past few years. The level of algebraic manipulation required at GCSE is not of a consistently high standard when compared with A Level and fails to prepare students fully for the rigours of A Level.
Short history of the Golden Mean
<html>
<embed id="VideoPlayback" src="http://video.google.com/googleplayer.swf?docId=7179950432887640376&hl=en-GB" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" style="WIDTH: 400px; HEIGHT: 326px" /></embed />
</html>
<html>
<object width="425" height="344"><param name="movie" value="http://www.youtube.com/v/hJJJmQojcLM&color1=0xb1b1b1&color2=0xcfcfcf&hl=en&feature=player_embedded&fs=1"></param><param name="allowFullScreen" value="true"></param><param name="allowScriptAccess" value="always"></param><embed src="http://www.youtube.com/v/hJJJmQojcLM&color1=0xb1b1b1&color2=0xcfcfcf&hl=en&feature=player_embedded&fs=1" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" allowfullscreen="true" allowScriptAccess="always" width="425" height="344"></embed></object>
</html>
<html><object width="425" height="344"><param name="movie" value="http://www.youtube.com/v/5UcF7lbATw4&color1=0xb1b1b1&color2=0xcfcfcf&hl=en&feature=player_embedded&fs=1"></param><param name="allowFullScreen" value="true"></param><param name="allowScriptAccess" value="always"></param><embed src="http://www.youtube.com/v/5UcF7lbATw4&color1=0xb1b1b1&color2=0xcfcfcf&hl=en&feature=player_embedded&fs=1" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" allowfullscreen="true" allowScriptAccess="always" width="425" height="344"></embed></object></html>
Video 1
<html><object width="425" height="344"><param name="movie" value="http://www.youtube.com/v/H_7lNT9oDzI&color1=0xb1b1b1&color2=0xcfcfcf&hl=en&feature=player_embedded&fs=1"></param><param name="allowFullScreen" value="true"></param><param name="allowScriptAccess" value="always"></param><embed src="http://www.youtube.com/v/H_7lNT9oDzI&color1=0xb1b1b1&color2=0xcfcfcf&hl=en&feature=player_embedded&fs=1" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" allowfullscreen="true" allowScriptAccess="always" width="425" height="344"></embed></object>
</html>
Terry Jones explores the origins of the number one
<html><embed id="VideoPlayback" src="http://video.google.com/googleplayer.swf?docid=-1957179570191443503&amp;hl=en&amp;fs=true" style="WIDTH: 400px; HEIGHT: 326px" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" allowfullscreen="true" allowscriptaccess="always"> </embed>
</html>
>To see the code needed to achieve these effects, click ''view'' or ''edit'' above right.

!Wikiwords
{{{
Using the tilda (~) character in front of a word will prevent 
TiddlyWiki showing this as a wikiword.

To force a word to become a wikiword wrap it inside [[ ]] 
eg [[ your word ]].

A wikiword is a word that has been tagged and 
therefore appears as a link to another tiddler. 
Wikiwords are automatically created where you have 
a word which changes case within the word
eg wikiWord would become highlighed
}}}
Force non wikiword ~NoWikiWord  - otherwise would be NoWikiWord
Force a wikiword [[Wikiword]]         - otherwise would be Wikiword
!Headers
{{{
You can produce various headers using the ! character 
as the starting character for that sentance. 
Header 1 - ! some text
Header 2 - !! some text
Header 3 - !!! some text
}}}
!This is header 1
!!This is header 2
!!!This is header 3
!Text formatting
{{{
To make an entry bold use two single quotes at the start and
at the end of the word eg ''bold''
}}}
''bold''
{{{
To make strike through an entry use -- at the start and
at the end of the word eg --strikethrough--
}}}
--strikethrough--
{{{
To underline an entry use two underscores at the start and
at the end of the word eg __underline__
}}}
__underline__
{{{
To make an entry italic use // at the start and
at the end of the word eg //italic//
}}}
//italics//
{{{
To make an entry superscript use ^^ at the start and
at the end of the word eg ^^superscript^^
}}}
super^^script^^
{{{
To make an entry subscript use ~~ at the start and
at the end of the word eg ~~subscript~~
}}}
sub~~script~~
{{{
To highlight an entry use @@ at the start and
at the end of the word eg @@highlight@@

By default it highlights the word with a yellow background
}}}
@@highlighted@@
{{{
To change the text colour use @@color(value): at the start of the
word and @@ at the end of the word eg @@color(red):Red@@
}}}
@@color(red):Colored text@@
@@color(green):Colored text@@
@@color(blue):Colored text@@
{{{
To add a horizontal line divider ---- usually at the start of a line on
its own.
}}}
Horizontal line below
----
!Links
{{{
Links are created like wikiwords using [[ ]], but this 
time the URL address or file location is included after the word
followed by | then the address.
eg [[Google|http://www.google.co.uk]] displays as follows - 
}}}
[[Link to google|http://www.google.com]]
!Blockquotes
{{{
Block quotes help organise ideas and also allow you to highlight
quotations if used for research work. Achieved using <<< at the start
of the quote and >>> at the end
eg <<< quotation >>>
}}}
<<<
Blockquotes
<<<
>level 1
>>level 2
>>>level 3
!Bullet points and Numbered lists
{{{
Bullet points and Ordered numbering of lists can be
produced using :
* at the start of a word on a single line for bullet points
# at the start of a word on a single line for numbering.

Using multiple * or # creates nested bullet points and numbering
}}}
*level 1
**level 2
***level 3
#level 1
##level 2
###level 3
!Plain text
{{{
plain text - means that formatting not enabled this is achieved using 
a {{{ at the beginning of the plain text and }}} at the end eg {{{ text }}}
for example :
!headers - off
''bold'' - off
--strikethrough-- - off
}}}
!Definitions
;definition, term
:definition, list
example
;Right angle
:An angle equal to 90 degrees
!Tables
{{{
Tables are created using the | character.
You begin a line with 
| text | - this creates row, one column
| text | text | - this creates two columns and one row

By building up combinations of these you can create
a full table.

Adding a "h" at the end of a row makes this row a header
eg | text | text |h
}}}
|very long cell content|very long cell content|very long cell content|
|cell 1|cell 2|cell 3|
| right aligned text| centre aligned cell ||

|cell 1|cell 2|cell 3|
|>|single column span||
|>|>|double column span|

''Table with a header row''
|cell 1|cell 2|cell 3|h
|~|row span||
|~|another row span||
|last cell 1|last cell 2|last cell 3|
<<life cellsize:.8em>>
/***
|Name|TiddlyLifePlugin|
|Source|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#TiddlyLifePlugin|
|Documentation|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#TiddlyLifePlugin|
|Version|1.6.5|
|Author|Eric Shulman|
|License|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#LegalStatements|
|~CoreVersion|2.1|
|Type|plugin|
|Description|Cellular Automata: Conway's "Game of Life"|
!!!!!Documentation
<<<
[[TiddlyLife]] is a TiddlyWiki-enabled javascript version of Conway's "Game of Life" cellular automata simulator.  It provides a "life matrix" on which to place cells, run the simulation, and observe the results.  The speed of the simulation is related to the total size of the matrix (i.e., rows X cols): the larger the matrix, the longer it takes to compute each 'generation' of cells.

You can set the number of rows and columns in the matrix, as well as the size of each cell and the color of the cells, grid, and background.  You can use the mouse to click/drag over the grid to add/delete cells (hold shift to add "walls").  The current life matrix can be saved as text in a tiddler and then reloaded later from a popup list of tiddlers tagged with<<tag tiddlyLife>>

Please see Wikipedia for an overview of [[Conway's "Game of Life"|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conway%27s_Game_of_Life]].
<<<
!!!!!Syntax
<<<
{{{
<<life	cellcolor:... gridcolor:... bgcolor:... wallcolor:...
	cellsize:... gridwidth:... delay:... limit:... stability:...
	autostart nomenu nostats noedit width:... height:... tid:...>>
}}}
where all parameters are optional (default values are shown in parentheses):
*''cellcolor:'' (//green//), ''gridcolor:'' (//#111//), ''bgcolor:'' (//black//) and ''wallcolor:'' (//gray//)<br>are CSS color names or RGB values (e.g.: "black", "blue",  "#fff", "#9af", etc.)
*''cellsize:'' (//1em//), and ''gridwidth:'' (//1px//)<br>are CSS dimensions, including units (e.g., px,em,cm,in)
*''delay:'' (//0//)<br>delay time (in msec) between simulation ticks (a larger number results in a slower simulation, but also leaves more CPU cycles available for other processes)
*''limit:'' (//10000//)<br>automatically stop stimulation after the indicated number of generations (use 0 for no limit)
*''stability:'' (//500//)<br>automatically stop simulation if population count remains stable for the indicated number of generations (use 0 for no limit)
*''autostart'' (//keyword//)<br>when present, causes the simulation to begin running as soon as the macro is rendered
*''nomenu'' (//keyword//)<br>when present, suppresses display of command menu (use with ''autostart'')
*''nostats'' (//keyword//)<br>when present, suppresses display of the current matrix statistics (generation #, population count/min/avg/max, birthrate/deathrate, average age)
*''noedit'' (//keyword//)<br>when present, prevent hand editing of cells in the matrix.  Instead, clicking on the matrix starts/stops the simulation (useful with ''nomenu'' and ''autostart'')
*''width:'' (//30//) and ''height:'' (//30//)<br>are dimensions for an empty life matrix
*''tid:'' (//no default//)<br>specifies a tiddler containing a saved life matrix definition.  note: when using a saved matrix, the width/height are determined by the stored definition and any width/height macro parameters that are present will be ignored.
<<<
!!!!!Examples
<<<
"Multi-cellular organisms" can be constructed by arranging blocks in specific patterns that exhibit emergent behaviors such as movement, symmetry, oscillation and generative abilities.  Two well-known organisms that are [[discussed in the Wikipedia article|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conway%27s_Game_of_Life]] are ''//gliders//'' and ''//Gosper's glider gun//'':

[[GliderDance]]: many small moving organisms just missing each other!
{{{<<life cellsize:.8em tid:GliderDance>>}}}
<<life cellsize:.8em tid:GliderDance>>
[[GliderGun]]: generates a stream of gliders that hits a wall
{{{<<life cellsize:.6em tid:GliderGun>>}}}
<<life cellsize:.6em tid:GliderGun>>
... and here's an ''empty life matrix'' for you to play with:
{{{<<life>>}}}
<<life>>
<<<
!!!!!Revisions
<<<
2008.10.11 [1.6.5] added 'step' command.  Also, for performance, removed birth/death stats and don't display average age (but //do// calculate it)
2008.10.10 [1.6.0] added birthrate, deathrate, and average age to statistics
2008.10.09 [1.5.0] use //named// params.  changed matrix values: 0==empty, >0==alive, <0==wall, where value=generation # in which cell was created
2008.10.08 [1.4.0] added 'stability' and 'limit' options (replaces 'autostop' checkbox)
2008.10.08 [1.3.0] added optional 'autostart', 'nomenu' and 'nostats' macro params
2008.10.07 [1.2.1] fixed update handling so multiple timers will no longer be created
2008.10.06 [1.2.0] added support for walls (unchanging dead cells) using dead="-", alive="O", wall="#"
2008.10.06 [1.1.1] redraw optimization: 300% speed improvement by setting CSS only when cell state *changes*
2008.10.05 [1.1.0] drag to draw (set/clear) multiple cells, new option controls (rows,cols,cellsize,delay,autostop), popup list for opening saved matrix
2008.10.04 [1.0.0] initial release
<<<
!!!!!Code
***/
//{{{
version.extensions.TiddlyLifePlugin= {major: 1, minor: 6, revision: 5, date: new Date(2008,10,11)};
config.shadowTiddlers.TiddlyLife="<<life>>";
config.macros.life={
//}}}
// // DEFAULTS
//{{{
	cellcolor:	"green",
	cellsize:	"1em",
	gridcolor:	"#111",
	gridwidth:	"1px",
	bgcolor:	"black",
	wallcolor:	"gray",
	width:		30,
	height:		30,
	stability: 	300,
	limit:		5000,
	delay:		0,
//}}}
// // TRANSLATE
//{{{
	lifeTag:	"tiddlyLife",
	titlePrompt:	"Enter a new tiddler title",
	openErr:	"Could not open '%0'",
	limitMsg:	"stopped: completed %0 generations",
	stableMsg:	"stopped: no growth for %0 generations",
	cellEditTip:	"CLICK=set/clear, SHIFT-CLICK=set wall",
	noEditTip:	"CLICK=start/stop simulation",
	startLabel:	"start",
	stopLabel:	"<b>STOP</b>",
	stats:		"gen: <b>%0</b> pop: <b>%1</b> min: <b>%2</b> avg: <b>%3</b> max: <b>%4</b> %5",
	cmds:		"<a href='#' title='start/stop simulation'\
				onclick='return config.macros.life.toggle(\"%0\")'>%1</a> \
			 | <a href='#' title='advance simulation by one generation'\
				onclick='return config.macros.life.step(\"%0\")'>step</a> \
			 | <a href='#' title='reload the starting life matrix'\
				onclick='return config.macros.life.reset(\"%0\")'>reset</a> \
			 | <a href='#' title='clear the life matrix'\
				onclick='return config.macros.life.clear(\"%0\")'>clear</a> \
			 | <a href='#' title='load a life matrix from a tiddler'\
				onclick='return config.macros.life.open(this,event,\"%0\")'>open</a> \
			 | <a href='#' title='save the current life matrix to a tiddler'\
				onclick='return config.macros.life.save(\"%0\")'>save</a> \
			 | <a href='#' title='change simulation option settings'\
				onclick='var s=this.nextSibling.style; var show=s.display==\"none\"; \
					s.display=show?\"block\":\"none\"; \
					return false;'>options</a><span style='display:none'>%2</span>",
	opts:		"delay:<input type='text' title='delay between generations (msec)' \
				value='%1' style='width:4em;font-size:90%;text-align:center;'>\
			 limit:<input type='text' title='automatically stop after N generations (0=no limit)' \
				value='%2' style='width:4em;font-size:90%;text-align:center;'>\
			 stability:<input type='text' title='stop if population count is stable for N generations (0=no limit)'\
				value='%3' style='width:4em;font-size:90%;text-align:center;'><br>\
			 rows:<input type='text' title='matrix height' \
				value='%4' style='width:3em;font-size:90%;text-align:center;'>\
			 cols:<input type='text' title='matrix width' \
				value='%5' style='width:3em;font-size:90%;text-align:center;'>\
			 cells:<input type='text' title='cellsize' \
				value='%6' style='width:3em;font-size:90%;text-align:center;'>\
			 <input type='button' value='OK' style='font-size:90%;' \
				title='change the life matrix dimensions' \
				onclick='var ins=this.parentNode.getElementsByTagName(\"input\"); \
					var t=ins[0].value; var l=ins[1].value; var a=ins[2].value; \
					var h=ins[3].value; var w=ins[4].value; var s=ins[5].value; \
					return config.macros.life.setoptions(\"%0\",w,h,s,t,a,l)'>",
	msgfmt: 	"<br><span title='use \"options\" command to change autostop settings' \
			onclick='this.style.display=\"none\"' \
			style='display:block;position:absolute;padding:0 .5em;cursor:pointer; \
			margin:.5em;color:%1;background-color:%2;border:1px solid %1'>%3</span>",

//}}}
// // GENERAL UTILITIES
//{{{
	empty: function(w,h) { // generate an empty matrix
		var m=[]; for (var r=0; r<h; r++) { m[r]=[]; for (var c=0; c<w; c++) m[r][c]=0; } return m;
	},
	paste: function(row,col,m1,m2) { // copy one matrix into another
		for (var r=row; r<m1.length && r<m2.length; r++)
			for (var c=col; c<m1[r].length && c<m2[r].length; c++)
				m2[r][c]=m1[r][c];
	},
	zeroPad: function(v,m) { // formatting for population stats
		var t=("0000"+v.toString());
		return t.substr(t.length-Math.max(m.toString().length,v.toString().length));
	},
	getValue: function(s) { // cell value from stored matrix symbol
		return s=='O'?1:s=='#'?-1:0;
	},
	getSymbol: function(v) { // stored matrix symbol from cell value
		return v>0?'O':v<0?'#':'-';
	},
	getColor: function(v,d) { // color from cell value
		return v>0?d.cellcolor:v<0?d.wallcolor:'';
	},
	getAge: function(v,d) { // age of a cell or wall
		return v?(d.gen||1)-Math.abs(v):0;
	},
	isAlive: function(v) { // 0 if dead, 1 if alive
		return v>0;
	},
	isWall: function(v) { // 1 if cell is a wall
		return v<0;
	},
	isAncient: function(v,d) { // true if cell age is more than ten times the average age
		return d.avgage>0 && this.getAge(v,d)>10*d.avgage;
	},
//}}}
// // MACRO HANDLER
//{{{
	handler: function(place,macroName,params,wikifier,paramString,tiddler) {
		var autostart	=params.contains("autostart");
		var nomenu	=params.contains("nomenu");
		var nostats	=params.contains("nostats");
		var noedit	=params.contains("noedit");
		params = paramString.parseParams("anon",null,true,false,false);
		var cellcolor	=getParam(params,"cellcolor",this.cellcolor);
		var wallcolor	=getParam(params,"wallcolor",this.wallcolor);
		var cellsize	=getParam(params,"cellsize",this.cellsize);
		var gridcolor	=getParam(params,"gridcolor",this.gridcolor);
		var gridwidth	=getParam(params,"gridwidth",this.gridwidth);
		var bgcolor	=getParam(params,"bgcolor",this.bgcolor);
		var tid		=getParam(params,"tid",this.tid);
		var w		=getParam(params,"rows",this.width);
		var h		=getParam(params,"cols",this.height);
		var delay	=getParam(params,"delay",this.delay);
		var stability	=getParam(params,"stability",this.stability);
		var limit	=getParam(params,"limit",this.limit);
		var m=this.load(tid); if (!m) var m=this.empty(w,h);
		var id="tiddlyLife_"+new Date().getTime()+Math.random();
		var e=createTiddlyElement(place,"span",id,"tiddlyLife");
		e.data={w:w, h:h, tid:tid, matrix:m, gen:0, stopped:!autostart,
			gencount:0, stable:0, total:0, birthrate:0, deathrate:0, age:0, 
			cellcolor:cellcolor, wallcolor:wallcolor, gridcolor:gridcolor, bgcolor:bgcolor,
			cellsize:cellsize, gridwidth:gridwidth, delay:delay, stability:stability, limit:limit,
			nostats:nostats, nomenu:nomenu, noedit:noedit };
		this.draw(id); if (autostart) this.go(id);
	},
//}}}
// // COMMAND HANDLERS
//{{{
	toggle: function(id) { // toggle simulation
		var e=document.getElementById(id); if (!e) return; var d=e.data; var m=d.matrix;
		if (d.stopped) this.go(id); else this.stop(id);
		return false;
	},
	go: function(id) { // start simulation and set command text
		var e=document.getElementById(id); if (!e) return; var d=e.data; var m=d.matrix;
		var b=e.getElementsByTagName("a")[0]; if (b) b.innerHTML=this.stopLabel;
		d.stopped=false; d.stable=0; d.gencount=0; clearTimeout(d.timer); this.refresh(id);
		return false;
	},
	stop: function(id) { // stop simulation and set command text
		var e=document.getElementById(id); if (!e) return; var d=e.data; var m=d.matrix;
		var b=e.getElementsByTagName("a")[0]; if (b) b.innerHTML=this.startLabel;
		d.stopped=true; clearTimeout(d.timer);		
		return false;
	},
	reset: function(id) { // reload initial matrix
		var e=document.getElementById(id); if (!e) return; var d=e.data;
		var m=this.load(d.tid); if (!m) var m=this.empty(d.w,d.h);
		this.stop(id); d.matrix=m; d.gen=0; this.draw(id);
		return false;
	},
	clear: function(id) { // load empty matrix
		var e=document.getElementById(id); if (!e) return; var d=e.data;
		var tid=d.tid; d.tid=""; this.reset(id); d.tid=tid;
		return false;
	},
	setoptions: function(id,w,h,s,t,a,l) { // options: width,height,cellsize,delaytime,autostop,limit
		var e=document.getElementById(id); if (!e) return; var d=e.data; var m=d.matrix;
		clearTimeout(d.timer); // stop simulation while changing matrix content
		d.w=w; d.h=h; d.stability=a; d.limit=l; d.cellsize=s; d.delay=t;
		var m2=this.empty(w,h); this.paste(0,0,m,m2); d.matrix=m2; this.draw(id);
		d.min=Math.min(d.min,d.count); d.max=Math.max(d.max,d.count);
		if (!d.stopped) d.timer=setTimeout('config.macros.life.refresh("'+id+'")',d.delay);
		return false;
	},
//}}}
// // I/O HANDLERS
//{{{
	load: function(tid) { // read tiddler into matrix
		var t=store.getTiddlerText(tid); if (!t) return;
		var lines=t.split("\n"); var m=[];
		if (lines[0]=="{{{") lines.shift();
		if (lines[lines.length-1]=="}}}") lines.pop();
		for (var r=0; r<lines.length; r++) { m[r]=[];
			for (var c=0; c<lines[r].length; c++) m[r].push(this.getValue(lines[r].substr(c,1)));
		}
		return m;
	},
	save: function(id) { // write matrix to tiddler
		var e=document.getElementById(id); if (!e) return; var d=e.data; var m=d.matrix;
		var tid=d.tid; var msg=config.messages.overwriteWarning.format([tid]);
		while (!tid||!tid.length ||(store.tiddlerExists(tid)&&!confirm(msg)))
			{ tid=prompt(this.titlePrompt,tid); if (!tid||!tid.length) return false; }
		d.tid=tid;
		var out=[];
		out.push('{{{');
		for (var r=0; r<m.length; r++) { var row='';
			for (var c=0; c<m[r].length; c++) row+=this.getSymbol(m[r][c]);
			out.push(row);
		}
		out.push('}}}');
		var t=store.getTiddler(tid);
		var txt=out.join('\n');
		var who=t&&config.options.chkForceMinorUpdate?t.modifier:config.options.txtUserName;
		var when=t&&config.options.chkForceMinorUpdate?t.modified:new Date();
		var tags=t?t.tags:[]; tags.pushUnique(this.lifeTag);
		var fields=t?t.fields:{};
		store.saveTiddler(tid,tid,txt,who,when,tags,fields);
		story.displayTiddler(null,tid); story.refreshTiddler(tid,null,true);
		return false;
	},
	open: function(here,event,id) { // select from a list of saved matrix tiddlers
		var p=Popup.create(here); if (!p) return false;
		p.style.padding="2px .5em";
		var tids=store.getTaggedTiddlers(this.lifeTag);
		for (var t=0; t<tids.length; t++) {
			var b=createTiddlyButton(createTiddlyElement(p,"li"),tids[t].title,tids[t].title,
				function() {
					var cml=config.macros.life;
					var id=this.getAttribute("id");
					var e=document.getElementById(id); if (!e) return false; var d=e.data;
					var tid=this.getAttribute("tid");
					var m=cml.load(tid);
					if (!m) { displayMessage(this.openErr.format([tid])); return false; }
					cml.stop(id); d.tid=tid; d.matrix=m; d.gen=0; cml.draw(id);
					return false;
				});
			b.setAttribute("id",id);
			b.setAttribute("tid",tids[t].title);
		}
		Popup.show();
		event.cancelBubble=true;if(event.stopPropagation)event.stopPropagation();
		return false;
	},
//}}}
// // EDIT HANDLERS
//{{{
	mousedown: function(here,ev,id,r,c) { // start manual edit
		var e=document.getElementById(id); if (!e) return; var d=e.data; var m=d.matrix;
		d.savedstop=d.stopped; this.stop(id); d.draw=!this.isAlive(m[r][c])?(d.gen||1):0;
		return this.setcell(here,id,r,c,ev&&ev.shiftKey?-(d.gen||1):d.draw);
	},
	mouseover: function(here,ev,id,r,c) { // drag edit
		var e=document.getElementById(id); if (!e) return; var d=e.data; var m=d.matrix;
		if (d.draw!==undefined) this.setcell(here,id,r,c,ev&&ev.shiftKey?-(d.gen||1):d.draw);
		return false;
	},
	mouseup: function(here,ev,id,r,c) { // end manual edit
		var e=document.getElementById(id); if (!e) return; var d=e.data; var m=d.matrix;
		if (d.savedstop!==undefined) d.stopped=d.savedstop; if (!d.stopped) this.go(id);
		d.draw=undefined; d.savedstop=undefined;
		return false;
	},
	setcell: function(here,id,r,c,v) { // set cell content and revise stats display
		var e=document.getElementById(id); if (!e) return; var d=e.data; var m=d.matrix;
		if (m[r][c]==v) return;
		if (this.isAlive(m[r][c]) && !this.isAlive(v)) { d.count--; d.min=Math.min(d.min,d.count); }
		if (!this.isAlive(m[r][c]) && this.isAlive(v)) { d.count++; d.max=Math.max(d.max,d.count); }
		m[r][c]=v; here.style.background=this.getColor(v,d);
		this.showstats(id,'');
		return false;
	},
//}}}
// // RENDER
//{{{
	draw: function(id) { // render entire tiddlyLife container (menu, stats, and table)
		var e=document.getElementById(id); if (!e) return; var d=e.data; var m=d.matrix;
		var out=[]; var count=0; var maxwidth=0;
		var style="border:%0 solid %1;background:%2;height:%3 !important;width:%3; !important";
		var onmousedown=d.noedit?"":"return config.macros.life.mousedown(this,event,'%4',%5,%6);";
		var onmouseover=d.noedit?"":"return config.macros.life.mouseover(this,event,'%4',%5,%6);";
		var onmouseup  =d.noedit?"":"return config.macros.life.mouseup(this,event,'%4',%5,%6);";
		var onclick    =d.noedit?"return config.macros.life.toggle('%4');":"";
		var tip="[%7,%8] "+(d.noedit?this.noEditTip:this.cellEditTip);
		var cell='<td style="margin:0;padding:0;'+style +'" title="'+tip+'" onclick="'+onclick
			+'" onmousedown="'+onmousedown+'" onmouseover="'+onmouseover+'" onmouseup="'+onmouseup+'"></td>';
		out.push('<table style="table-layout:fixed;border-collapse:collapse;'
			+'margin:0;padding:0;border:0;background-color:'+d.bgcolor+'">');
		for (var r=0; r<m.length; r++) {
			if (m[r].length>maxwidth) maxwidth=m[r].length;
			out.push('<tr style="margin:0;padding:0;border:0;">');
			for (var c=0; c<m[r].length; c++) {
				out.push(cell.format([d.gridwidth,d.gridcolor,this.getColor(m[r][c],d),
					d.cellsize,id,r,c,r+1,c+1]));
				count+=this.isAlive(m[r][c]);
			}
			out.push('</tr>');
		}
		out.push('</table>');
		d.count=count;
		if (!d.gen) { d.gencount=d.stable=d.total=d.oldest=d.maxage=d.avgage=0; d.min=d.max=d.avg=count; }
		var hdr=[];
		if (!d.nomenu) hdr.push(this.cmds.format([id,d.stopped?this.startLabel:this.stopLabel,
			this.opts.format([id,d.delay,d.limit,d.stability,m.length,maxwidth,d.cellsize])]));
		if (!d.nostats) hdr.push('<div style="font-size:90%">'
			+this.stats.format([d.gen,d.count,d.min,d.avg,d.max])+'</div>');
		e.innerHTML=hdr.join('')+out.join('');
		return false;
	},
//}}}
// // RUN SIMULATION
//{{{
	refresh: function(id) { // timer-based refresh cycle
		var e=document.getElementById(id); if (!e) return; var d=e.data; var m=d.matrix;
		this.step(id); if (!d.stopped) d.timer=setTimeout('config.macros.life.refresh("'+id+'")',d.delay);
		return false;
	},
	step: function(id) { // calc new matrix, gather stats and display changes
		var e=document.getElementById(id); if (!e) return; var d=e.data; var m=d.matrix;
		// calculate next generation
		var m2=[]; var count=agecount=agetotal=oldest=0; d.gen++; d.gencount++;
		var table=e.getElementsByTagName("table")[0]; if (!table) return;
		var rows=table.getElementsByTagName("tr");
		for (var r=0; r<m.length; r++) {
			m2[r]=[];
			var cells=rows[r].getElementsByTagName("td");
			for (var c=0; c<m[r].length; c++) {
				var v=this.tick(d.gen,m,r,c); // apply Conway's 23/3 rule
				m2[r].push(v);
				var color=this.getColor(v,d);
				if (cells[c].style.backgroundColor!=color)
					cells[c].style.backgroundColor=color;
				if (this.isAlive(v)) {
					var a=this.getAge(v,d);
					if (!this.isAncient(v,d)) { agecount++; agetotal+=a; }
					oldest=Math.max(oldest,a);
					count++;
				}
			}
		}
		d.matrix=m2; // update matrix
		this.calcstats(id,count,agecount,agetotal,oldest); // calculate statistics
		var msg=this.autostop(id); // autostop if conditions apply
		this.showstats(id,msg); // show statistics and message (if any)
		return false;
	},
	tick: function(gen,m,r,c) { // apply Conway's 23/3 rule
		if (this.isWall(m[r][c])) return m[r][c]; // walls don't change
		var prevrow=r>0?r-1:(m.length-1);
		var nextrow=r<m.length-1?r+1:0;
		var prevcol=c>0?c-1:(m[r].length-1);
		var nextcol=c<m[r].length-1?c+1:0;
		var near=this.isAlive(m[prevrow][prevcol]) + this.isAlive(m[prevrow][c]) + this.isAlive(m[prevrow][nextcol])
			+this.isAlive(m[r][prevcol])       + this.isAlive(m[r][nextcol])
			+this.isAlive(m[nextrow][prevcol]) + this.isAlive(m[nextrow][c]) + this.isAlive(m[nextrow][nextcol]);
		if (!this.isAlive(m[r][c])&&near==3) return gen; // birth
		if (this.isAlive(m[r][c])&&near==2||near==3) return m[r][c]; // stay alive
		return 0; // death
	},
	autostop: function(id) { // autostop if run limit reached or no changes for N generations
		var e=document.getElementById(id); if (!e) return; var d=e.data; var m=d.matrix;
		var msg='';
		var limited=d.limit>0 && d.gencount>=d.limit;
		var stabilized=d.stability>0 && d.stable>=d.stability;
		if (limited || stabilized) {
			this.stop(id); 
			msg=stabilized?this.stableMsg.format([d.stability]):this.limitMsg.format([d.limit]);
			msg=this.msgfmt.format([id,d.cellcolor,d.bgcolor,msg]);
		}
		return msg;
	},
	calcstats: function(id,count,agecount,agetotal,oldest) {
		var e=document.getElementById(id); if (!e) return; var d=e.data; var m=d.matrix;
		d.stable+=(count==d.count)?1:-d.stable; // add one or reset to zero
		d.count=count; d.total+=count;
		d.min=Math.min(d.min,count); d.max=Math.max(d.max,count); d.avg=Math.floor(d.total/d.gen);
		d.avgage=agecount?agetotal/agecount:0; d.oldest=oldest; d.maxage=Math.max(d.maxage,oldest);
		return false;
	},
	showstats: function(id,msg) {
		var e=document.getElementById(id); if (!e) return; var d=e.data; var m=d.matrix;
		var stats=e.getElementsByTagName("div")[0];
		if (stats) stats.innerHTML=this.stats.format([d.gen,this.zeroPad(d.count,d.max),d.min,d.avg,d.max,msg]);
		return false;
	}
}
//}}}
[[Homepage|http://www.tiddlywiki.com]]

There is a very active community of TiddlyWiki users writing very useful plugins to add some very useful functionality to your TiddlyWiki pages. You can find calendars, games, formatting tools and many other tools. 

Below are a small list of the main TiddlyWiki sites :

#[[TiddlyTools|http://www.tiddlytools.com]]
#[[TiddlyVault|http://tiddlyvault.tiddlyspot.com/]]
#[[Monkey Pirate Tiddly Wiki, MPTW|http://mptw.tiddlyspot.com/]]

For a guide to formatting rules see TiddlyGuide.
!!DAYTIME Monday 30 July 2007 11pm-midnight Time seems to drive every moment. It's the most inescapable force we feel. But do we experience time from within our minds and bodies or from the outside?
<html>
<embed id=VideoPlayback src=http://video.google.com/googleplayer.swf?docid=7936746491856990760&hl=en&fs=true style=width:400px;height:326px allowFullScreen=true allowScriptAccess=always type=application/x-shockwave-flash> </embed>
</html>
!!LIFETIME Monday 6 August 2007 11pm-midnight The most powerful effect of time on our lives is the way it limits us. Our knowledge of death is so embedded in our lives and spirituality that, were immortality possible, would we lose the sense that makes us human?
<html>
<embed id=VideoPlayback src=http://video.google.com/googleplayer.swf?docid=-5132896543158952711&hl=en&fs=true style=width:400px;height:326px allowFullScreen=true allowScriptAccess=always type=application/x-shockwave-flash> </embed>
</html>
!!EARTHTIME Monday 13 August 2007 11pm-midnight TBC We hold a unique knowledge of time, realising that it stretches deep into the past, and will continue into the future. How does this affect our sense of who we are?
<html>
<embed id=VideoPlayback src=http://video.google.com/googleplayer.swf?docid=1003860946890561228&hl=en&fs=true style=width:400px;height:326px allowFullScreen=true allowScriptAccess=always type=application/x-shockwave-flash> </embed>
</html>
!!COSMICTIME Monday 20 August 2007 11pm-midnight TBC We've always structured our lives based on an unchanging past and a predictable and ordered future. But atomic and cosmic discoveries have changed all that. What is time itself? And will it ever end?
<html>
<embed id=VideoPlayback src=http://video.google.com/googleplayer.swf?docid=934813598026791393&hl=en&fs=true style=width:400px;height:326px allowFullScreen=true allowScriptAccess=always type=application/x-shockwave-flash> </embed>
</html>
!Travelling Salesperson Problem
Animated Travelling salesman problem
<html>
<form name="tsp" method="get">
<select onchange="location=document.tsp.menud4.options[document.tsp.menud4.selectedIndex].value;" name=menud4 value="GO">
<option value="http://itp.nat.uni-magdeburg.de/~mertens/TSP/TSP.html">TSP site 1</option>
<option value="http://www.keck.caam.rice.edu/tsp/">TSP site 2</option>
<option value="http://www.tinet.ch/~patol/java/TSP/index.html">TSP site 3</option>
<option value="http://saturn.vcu.edu/~gasmerom/MAT131/tsp.html">TSP site 4</option>
<option selected>choose a topic</option></select>
</form>
</html>
<html>
<object width="425" height="344"><param name="movie" value="http://www.youtube.com/v/07OfkKcxvIA&color1=0xb1b1b1&color2=0xcfcfcf&hl=en&feature=player_embedded&fs=1"></param><param name="allowFullScreen" value="true"></param><param name="allowScriptAccess" value="always"></param><embed src="http://www.youtube.com/v/07OfkKcxvIA&color1=0xb1b1b1&color2=0xcfcfcf&hl=en&feature=player_embedded&fs=1" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" allowfullscreen="true" allowScriptAccess="always" width="425" height="344"></embed></object>
</html>
<<tiddlerTweaker>>
!The UK Education System
!!!England, Wales and Northern Ireland
There is a legal responsibility for all children aged 5 to 16 receive a full-time education suited to their age, ability, aptitude and special educational needs (SEN). Prior to the Education Reform Act of 1988 schools were free to decide what they teach their students, religious education was the only compulsory subject. The [[National Curriculum|http://curriculum.qca.org.uk/]] was developed as part of the Education Reform Act 1988 introduced in England in 1992 to ensure that all pupils had a balanced education, clearly stating the standards expected to be achieved by the students.

The National Curriculum has four key stages as follows:

*Key Stage 1: Years 1 and 2 (ages 5-7)
*Key Stage 2: Years 3, 4, 5 and 6 (ages 7-11)
*Key Stage 3: Years 7, 8 and 9 (ages 11-14)
*Key Stage 4: Years 10 and 11 (ages 14-16)

''The Foundation Stage'' (early years or Reception Stage - ages 3-5), became part of the National Curriculum in 2002. ''Key Stage 1 and 2'' are taught in primary schools and ''Key Stage 3 and 4'' are generally taught in secondary schools. Most pupils move from primary to secondary school at the age of 11.

The national curriculum consists of a core subjects - English, math and science, and the foundation are matters of design and technology, information and communication technology (ICT), history, geography, art and design, music, physical education, modern foreign languages - at Key Stage 3 only - and citizenship. Religious education is taught in accordance with agreed local curriculum.

All pupils in England, except for those from independent or private are required to comply with the National Curriculum, with the exception that in Wales, Welsh is also a central theme.

Students are assessed by examination at the end of each key stage (results collated into [[league tables|http://www.dcsf.gov.uk/performancetables/]]), with the Key Stage 4 gaining General Certificate of Secondary Education ([[GCSE|GCSE Info]]). Update : In October 2008, the government scrapped Key Stage 3 ~SATs test for 14 year olds. It is now proposed that by 2011, a new US style report card wil be issued to primary and secondary schools.

After completing ~GCSEs, students have the option of whether to continue with education at school or university through [[A levels|A level Info]] or vocational training or to carry out the job.
!!!Scotland
Scotland has its own qualification framework that is independent of the national curriculum used in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. The curriculum in Scotland is not established by law, placing the responsibility on local authorities and schools.

The curriculum is divided into ''Curriculum and Standard Grade'' for 5 to 16 years old. After Standard Grade, students progress to ''Intermediate, Advanced Higher and Higher'' grades..

The Year in Scotland groups are divided into primary (P) and secondary (S), with the 5-14 curriculum that covers ~P1-P7 to S1 and S2. Standard Grade starts in S3 and S4, S5 Senior Grade and Advanced Higher taken by most pupils in the S6 year. The first year of secondary school (S1) is equivalent to 8 Year in England, therefore those in Scotland have a year less in secondary education than those in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.

The 5-14 curriculum is divided into six levels, A to F. Assessment of pupils achieving levels is taken by individuals or groups when teachers believes their students are ready.
!!!Links
[[The National Curriculum|http://curriculum.qca.org.uk/]] 
[[School Performance League Tables|http://www.dcsf.gov.uk/performancetables/]]
[[Ofsted : The Office for Standards in Education|http://www.ofsted.gov.uk/]]
[[Doceo - Angles on learning and teaching|http://www.doceo.co.uk/index.htm]]    
[[Geoff Petty - Teaching Today|http://www.geoffpetty.com/]]
[[The early history of education in England|http://www.know-britain.com/general/education_in_england_1.html]]            
[[Sparticus Educational : Encyclopedia of British Education|http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/education.htm]]
<<tabs tabClass
UK_Education_Overview "" [[UK Education Overview]]
A_levels "" [[A level Info]]
GCSEs "" [[GCSE Info]]
>>
Figures show less than one-in-five students in England, Wales and Northern Ireland take advanced maths courses beyond the age of 16.

This compares with between 50 and 100 per cent of teenagers in most other countries, including the Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, Japan and Korea.

Academics warned that the UK was being left with a less “mathematically-enabled nation” – potentially holding the country back in the global economy.

The comments came as Michael Gove, the Education Secretary, confirmed plans to increase the number of bright maths and science graduates going into teaching.

He said students with good university degrees in the subjects could have their student debts paid off if they entered the teaching profession.

Anthony Tomei, director of the Nuffield Foundation, which published the research, said: “This new evidence shows just how much England, Wales and Northern Ireland are out on a limb.

“The vast majority of young people’s mathematics education ends with GCSE at age 15 or 16, leaving them inadequately prepared for further or higher education, or for employment.”

Source: [[UK falling behind other countries in mathematics - Telegraph|http://www.telegraph.co.uk/education/educationnews/8201566/UK-falling-behind-other-countries-in-mathematics.html]]
<<tagging videoClips>>
<<tagging videoFulldoc>>
<<tagging videoMusic>>
!Video tools
[[Google Video |http://video.google.co.uk/]]
[[Media Convert |http://media-convert.com/convert/]]
[[SuperNova Tube |http://www.supernovatube.com/]]
[[TeacherTube |http://www.teachertube.com/index.php]]
[[Video Conferencing Guides |http://www.wmnet.org.uk/vc/]]
[[VideoJug |http://www.videojug.com/]]

!Download Streaming Video
[[Capture Streaming Video and Record Streaming Audio with WM Recorder |http://www.wmrecorder.com/]]
[[Ashampoo Clipfinder HD|http://www2.ashampoo.com/webcache/html/1/product_2_0155___GBP.htm]]
[[Comprehensive Guide to Saving Streaming Video |http://www.pallab.net/2007/06/05/comprehensive-guide-to-saving-streaming-video/]]
[[keepvid Download videos |http://keepvid.com/]]
[[vixy.net Online FLV Converter |http://vixy.net/]]
[[Download BBC iPlayer|http://po-ru.com/projects/iplayer-downloader/]]
<<tabs tabClass
Music_Videos "" [[VideoMusic]]
Short_Films "" [[VideoClips]]
Full_Documentaries "" [[VideoFulldoc]]
>>
----
@@2July Poll:@@
<html>
<form method=post action="http://poll.pollcode.com/xFz"><table border=0 width=150 bgcolor="EEEEEE" cellspacing=0 cellpadding=2><tr><td colspan=2><font face="Verdana" size=1 color="000000"><b>Have you watched any videos from TED (www.ted.com)</b></font></td></tr><tr><td width=5><input type=radio name=answer value="1"></td><td><font face="Verdana" size=1 color="000000">yes</font></td></tr><tr><td width=5><input type=radio name=answer value="2"></td><td><font face="Verdana" size=1 color="000000">no</font></td></tr><tr><td colspan=2><center><input type=submit value="Vote">&nbsp;&nbsp;<input type=submit name=view value="View"></center></td></tr><tr><td bgcolor="white" colspan=2 align=right><font face="Verdana" size=1 color="black">pollcode.com <a href=http://pollcode.com/><font color="navy">free polls</font></a></font></td></tr></table></form>
</html>
<html>
<embed id="VideoPlayback" src="http://video.google.com/googleplayer.swf?docId=7574459567474248689&hl=en-GB" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" style="WIDTH: 400px; HEIGHT: 326px" /></embed />
</html>
<html><embed id="VideoPlayback" src="http://video.google.com/googleplayer.swf?docId=9151565736298805805&hl=en-GB" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" style="WIDTH: 400px; HEIGHT: 326px" /></embed />
</html>
!Whiteboard tools

[[Naace Big Book Maker |http://www.mape.org.uk/activities/BigBookMaker/]]
[[Powerful PowerPoint More Tricks |http://www.loyola.edu/edudept/PowerfulPowerPoint/MoreTricks.html]]
[[Welcome to Learning Tools |http://www.learningtools.arts.ubc.ca/index.htm]]
!Worksheet tools

[[Classroom Materials Makers |http://www.teach-nology.com/web_tools/materials/]]
[[DK Schools - Free resources home page |http://www.dorlingkindersley-uk.co.uk/static/html/features/forteachers/index.html]]
[[Free Math Worksheets |http://www.allmathworksheets.com/?gclid=CLbZiaigt48CFQscQgodf2Tncg]]
[[Maths worksheets |http://www.numeracyworld.com/index.html]]
[[Schoolhouse Technologies |http://www.schoolhousetech.com/products/]]
[[SuperKids Math Worksheet Creator |http://www.superkids.com/aweb/tools/math/]]
[[The Math Worksheet Site.com |http://themathworksheetsite.com/]]
[[Webmaths |http://webmath.com/]]
[[Whiteboard Worksheets |http://www.active-maths.co.uk/whiteboard/2data/index.html]]
[[Worksheet Generator |http://www.sites4teachers.com/links/redirect.php?url=http://www.math.com/students/worksheet/algebra_sp.htm]]
[[Worksheet Makers |http://www.teach-nology.com/web_tools/work_sheets/]]
These have been produced using [[Xaos freeware|http://xaos.sourceforge.net/index.php]] - fractal freeware zoomer

<<photoGallery url:fractals/fract*.jpg sequence:'1-18' height:200 time:2000 numbers>>
Click on the tabs to see additional content
if(config.options.txtUserName != "Ali V Ali") {
	readOnly = true;
	showBackstage = false;
}